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© Rakhesh Sasidharan

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Windows Services – Fix unquoted path vulnerabilities using PowerShell

At work as part of some security certification we are running Nessus scans on all our systems and it came up with the following vulnerability – link. Read that link, it’s good info.

Basically if one of your Windows Service entries point to (say) “C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v3.0\Windows Communication Foundation\SMSvcHost.exe” without the double quotes then one could potentially create a malicious file called Windows.exe at “C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v3.0\Windows” and Windows will execute that file instead of parsing the full path and treating it as part of a folder name. That’s because Windows uses space as a delimiter between a command and its switches & arguments and so it could treat the entry as “C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v3.0\Windows.exe” with arguments “Communication Foundation\SMSvcHost.exe“.

The solution for this is to find all such entries that contain a space, and if the path is not in double quotes then make it so. You have to do this in the registry, so you could either do it manually or make a script and do it en masse. I went the latter route so here’s something I created.

I am being lazy and not really offering input etc as I just expect a list of servers to be scanned in a file called “ServerNames.txt”. I have the above saved to a .ps1 file and I simply run it as .\Registry.ps1. Feel free to adapt to your needs.

What it does is that it connects to the server specified (provided they are online), tries to open the “services” key under HKLM (assuming it has access), and then enumerates all the subkeys that contain the service names and checks if the path has a space. It only matches against paths containing a .exe so it could miss out some stuff. Once it finds a match it extracts the bit up to the .exe, splits it along any spaces, and if there are more than one results (which means the path did have spaces) it encloses it in double quotes and replaces the original entry.

The code is smart enough to know it must correctly double quote something like "D:\Program Files (x86)\BigHand\BigHand Workflow Server 4.6\BHServer.exe /V:4.6" as "D:\Program Files (x86)\BigHand\BigHand Workflow Server 4.6\BHServer.exe" /V:4.6 and not "D:\Program Files (x86)\BigHand\BigHand Workflow Server 4.6\BHServer.exe /V:4.6".

By default it only displays results. An optional parameter -FixIt will also make the changes.

Example output:

Hope it helps!

Windows Update on remote machines

I mentioned yesterday that one can Windows Update a machine via script located at c:\Windows\System32\en-US\WUA_SearchDownloadInstall.vbs. It’s easy, just run via the following command on at machine:

I thought of taking it one step ahead and running on remote computers via PSExec. So I coped the script to the C:\ of all my servers (it’s only present in Server Core by default) and executed it via PSExec:

That worked – sort of. I got a list of updates and I selected to download and install them all, but it just seemed to hang after that. I know the script (and even Windows Update GUI) is slow in general so I gave PsExec a long long time to complete, but that didn’t help.

Side by side I was searching for any PowerShell alternative to this script and came across this one. Compared to the VBScript technique it has an advantage (apart from being in PowerShell!) that I can control the “install updates” and “reboot” behaviors via switches. So all I needed to do was run something like this from a command-prompt window to install all available updates on a machine and then reboot:

Neato!

Thought I’d try run this remotely via PsExec but this time I got a lot of errors:

Looking more into this I came across an MSDN article about using Windows Update Agent (WUA) remotely. Turns out the CreateUpdateDownloader method that’s erroring above – which from it’s name sounds like the method responsible for downloading updates – is not allowed to be called remotely. Looking at the VBScript too, it has a section like the below where it hangs, so that explains why I couldn’t run that script either remotely.

I found some more PowerShell scripts that updates Windows machines – for example this and this. All of them use the same methods and so don’t work remotely. The blog post talking about the last script goes into more detail on an alternative method though. The trick is to create a scheduled task with the PowerShell script and run that on demand remotely. Since it runs locally, the PowerShell script will then succeed! I am yet to try it out but it seems like a reasonable workaround. Can deploy it via a GPO after all to all my machines.

From that post though I noticed the author creates the scheduled task as the LOCALSYSTEM account. So I re-ran PsExec but this time told it to execute the command as the remote LOCALSYSTEM account. And that worked! So now I can run a command like this

Or this

And am able to update a machine remotely. Nice! I prefer the PowerShell method as it lets me reboot the machine too without any prompt.