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Deploying Office 2016 language packs (using PowerShell Admin Toolkit)

I need to deploy a language pack for one of our offices via ConfigMgr. I have no idea how to do this! 

What they want is for the language to appear in this section of Office:

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I don’t know much of Office so I didn’t even know where to start with. I found this official doc on deploying languages and that talked about modifying the config file in ProPlus.WW\Config.xml. I spent a lot of time trying to understand how to proceed with that and even downloaded the huge ISOs from VLSC but had no idea how to deploy them via ConfigMgr. That is, until I spoke to a colleague with more experience in this and realized that what I am really after is the Office 2016 Proofing Toolkit. You see, language packs are for the UI – the menus and all that – whereas if you are only interested in spell check and all that stuff what you need is the proofing tools. (In retrospect, the screenshot above says so – “dictionaries, grammar checking, and sorting” – but I didn’t notice that initially). 

So first step, download the last ISO in the list below (Proofing Tools; 64-bit if that’s your case). 

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Extract it somewhere. It will have a bunch of files like this:

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The proofkit.ww folder is your friend. Within that you will find folders for various languages. You can see this doc for a list of language identifiers and languages. In the root of that folder is a config.xml file with the following –

By default this file does nothing. Everything’s commented out as you can see. If you want to additional languages, you modify the config.xml first and then pass it to setup.exe via a command like setup /config \path\to\this\config.xml. The setup command is the setup.exe in the folder itself. 

Here’s my config.xml file which enables two languages and disables everything else.

Step 2 would be to copy the setup.exe, setup.dll, proofkit.ww, and proofmui.en-us to your ConfigMgr content store to a folder of its own. It’s important to copy proofmui-en.us too. I had missed that initially and was getting “The language of this installation package is not supported by your system” errors when deploying. After that you’d make a new application which will run a command like setup.exe /config \path\to\this\config.xml. I am not going into the details of that. These two blog posts are excellent references: this & this.

At this point I was confused again, though. Everything I read about the proofing kit made it sound like a one time deal – as in you install all the languages you want, and you are done. What I couldn’t understand was how would I go about adding/ removing languages incrementally? What I mean is say I modified this file to add Spanish and Portugese as languages, and I deploy the application again … since all machines already have the proofing kit package installed, and it’s product code is already present in the detection methods, wouldn’t the deployment silently ignore?

To see why this doesn’t make sense to me, here are the typical instructions (based on above blog posts):

  • Copy to content store
  • Modify config.xml with the languages you are interested in 
  • Create a new ConfigMgr application. While creating you go for the MSI method and point it to the proofkit.ww\proofkitww.msi file. This will fill the MSI detection code etc. in ConfigMgr. 
  • After that edit the application you created, modify the content location to remove the proofkit.ww part (because we are now going to run setup.exe from the folder above it), and modify the installation program in the Programs tab to be setup.exe /config proofkit.ww\config.xml.

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Notice how the uninstall program and detection method both have the MSI code of the MSI we targeted initially. So what do I do if I modify the config.xml file later and want to re-deploy the application? Since it will detect the MSI code of the previous deployment it won’t run at all; all I can do is uninstall the previous installation first and then re-install – but that’s going to interrupt users, right? 

Speaking to my colleagues it seems the general approach is to include all languages you want upfront itself, then add some custom detection methods so you don’t depend on the MSI code above, and push out new languages if needed by creating new applications. I couldn’t find mention of something like this when I Googled (probably coz I wasn’t asking the right questions), so here goes what I did based on what I understood from others. 

As before, create the application so we are at the screenshot stage above. As it stands the application will install and will detect that it has installed correctly if it finds the MSI product code. What I need to do is add something extra to this so I can re-deploy the application and it will notice that inspite of the MSI being installed it needs to re-install. First I played around with adding a batch file as a second deployment type after the MSI deployment type, having it add a registry registry. Something like this:

This adds a key called OfficeProofingKit2016 with value 1. Whenever I change my languages I can update the version to kick a new install. I added this as a detection to the batch file detection type, and made the MSI deployment type a dependency of it. The idea being that when I change languages and update the batch file and detection method with a new version, it will trigger a re-run of the batch file which will in turn cause the MSI deployment type to be re-run. 

That turned out to be a dead end coz 1) I am not entirely clear how multiple deployment types work and 2) I don’t think whatever logic I had in my head was correct anyways. When the MSI deployment type re-runs wouldn’t it see the product is already installed and just silently continue?! I dunno. 

Fast forward. I took a bath, cleared my head, and started looking for ways in which I could just do both installation and tattooing in the same batch file. I didn’t want to go with batch files as they are outdated (plus there’s the thing with UNC paths etc). I didn’t want to do VBScript as that’s even more outdated :p and what I really should be doing is some PowerShell scripting to be really cool and do this like a pro. Which led me to the PowerShell App Deployment Toolkit (PSADT). Oh. My. God. Wow! What a thing. 

The website’s a bit sparse on documentation but that’s coz you got to do download the toolkit and look at the Word doc in there and examples. Plus a bit of Googling to get you started with what others are doing. But boy, is PSADT something! Once you download the PSADT zip file and extract its contents there’s a toolkit folder with the following:

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This folder is what you would copy over to the content store of whatever application you want to install. And into the “files” folder of this is where you’d copy all the application deployment stuff – the things you’d previously have copied into the content store.  You can install/ uninstall by invoking the Deploy-Application.ps1 file or you can simple run the Deploy-Application.exe file. 

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Notice I changed the deployment type to a script instead of MSI, as it previously was. The only program I have in that is the Deploy-Application.exe

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And I changed the detection method to be the registry key I am interested in with the value I want. 

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That’s all. Now for the fun stuff, which is in the Deploy-Application.ps1 file. 

At first glance that file looks complicated. That’s because there’s a lot of stuff in it, including comments and variables etc., but what we really need to concerting ourselves with is certain sections. That’s where you set some variables plus do things like install applications (via MSI or directly running an exe like I am doing here), do some post install stuff (which is what I wanted to do, the point for this whole exercise!), uninstall stuff etc. In fact, this is all I had to add to the file for my stuff:

That’s it! :) That takes care of running setup.exe with the config.xml file as an argument. Tattooing the registry. Informing users. And even undoing these changes when I want to uninstall.

I found the Word document that came with PSADT and this cheatsheet very handy to get me started.

Update: Forgot to mention. All the above steps only install the languages on user machines. To actually enable it you have to use GPOs. Additionally, if  you want to change keyboard layouts post-install that’s done via registry key. You can add it to PSADT deployment itself. The registry key is HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Keyboard Layout\Preload. Here’s a list of values.

Demoting a 2012R2 Domain Controller using PowerShell

Such a simple command. But a bit nerve racking coz it doesn’t have much options and you wonder if it will somehow remove your entire domain and not just the DC you are targeting. :)

Uninstall-ADDSDomainController

You don’t need to add anything else. This will prompt for the new local admin password and proceed with removal. 

Using PowerShell to change a scope option across multiple scopes & multiple servers

I had to change option 150 (Cisco VoIP) for multiple scopes across multiple servers as we are moving our Call Manager to a new location this weekend, and couldn’t be bothered doing it manually post move.

All my voice scopes have the word Voice or VoIP in them so I match on them. A lot of the code is verbose coz I like to be a bit verbose, but you could probably crunch it all down to a single line or two. :)

HPE Synergy and eFuse Reset

In the HPE BladeSystem c7000 Enclosures one can do something called an eFuse reset to power cycle any the server blades. I have blogged about it previously here.

Now we are on the HPE Synergy 12000 Frames at work and I wanted to do something similar. One of the compute modules (aka server :p) was complaining that the server profile couldn’t be applied due to some errors. The compute module was off and refusing to power on, so it looked like there was nothing we could do short of removing it from the frame and putting back. I felt an eFuse reset would do the trick here – it does the same after all.

I couldn’t find any way of doing this via an SSH into the frame’s OneView (which is the equivalent of the Onboard Administrator in a c7000 Enclosure) but then found this PowerShell library from HPE. Now that is pretty cool! Here’s a wiki page too with all the cmdlets – a good page to bookmark and keep handy. Using this I was able to power cycle the compute module.

1) Install the library following instructions in the first link.

2) Login.

3) Get a list of the modules in the enclosure (not really required but I did anyways to confirm the PowerShell view matches my expectations).

4) Now assign the enclosure object containing the module I want to reset to a variable. We need this for the next step.

In my case the Synergy 12000 Frame (capital “F”) is made up of two frame enclosures. (The frame enclosure is where you have the compute modules and interconnects and frame link modules etc).  The module I want to reset is in bay 1 of frame 2. So below I assign the frame 2 object to a variable.

5) Now do the actual eFuse reset.

The -Component parameter can take as argument Device (for compute modules), FLM (for Frame Link Modules), ICM (for InterConnect Modules), and Appliance (for the Synergy Composer or Image Streamer). The -DeviceID parameter is the bay number for the type of component we are trying to reset (so -Component Device -DeviceID 1 is not the same as -Component ICM -DeviceID 1).

An eFuse reset is optional. You could do a simple reset too by skipping the -Efuse switch. The Appliance and ICM components only do eFuse reset though. I am not sure what a regular (non eFuse) reset does.

Adding Registry keys to NTUSER.DAT for multiple users

A while ago I had pointed to a blog post I found wherein the author wrote a script to push registry keys to the NTUSER.DAT profile file of a large number of users. I wanted to try something similar in my own environment and while I didn’t go with the script I found I made up something quick and dirty of my own. I know it isn’t as thorough as the one from that blog post (so I’ll link to it again) but it serves my need. :)

So here’s the deal. I have a bunch of profiles located at “\\path\to\profiles\ctxprofiles$“. It has both v4 and v6 profiles. I’d only like to target the v4 profiles, and that too a specific user for testing. This user’s name contains the word “CtxTest” so I match against it. (Post testing I can remove the pipeline and target everyone).

All I do is get the list of folders, and for each of them load the NTUSER.DAT file from the correct location (it’s under a folder called UPM_Profile as I am using Citrix UPM). I just use the REG commands to load the registry hive, import a registry file, and unload the hive. Easy peasy. No error checking etc. so like I said it’s not as great a script as it can be.

[Aside] Profile Manager NTUSER.DAT editing

I liked this blog post. That’s something I had thought of trying earlier when I was thinking about registry keys and applying them via GPP vs other methods. For now I am applying a huge bunch of my registry keys via the default profile and if there’s any subsequent changes then I’ll push the change out via GPP (for existing users) and also modify the default profile (for new users). But the geeky method the author followed of loading each user’s NTUSER.DAT and modifying the registry key directly is fun and something I had considered. Only catch though is that this has to be done during a period no users are logged in. Coz of this I don’t think I’ll be trying this in my environment but I liked the idea.

Find all GPOs modified yesterday

Via PowerShell, of course:

And to make a report of the settings in these same GPOs:

Yeah, I cheated in the end by using > rather than Out-File. Old habits. :)

Not sure why, but doing a search like Get-GPO -All | ?{ ($_.ModificationTime) -eq [datetime]"18 September 2017" } doesn’t yield any results. I think it’s because the timestamps don’t match. I couldn’t think of a way around that.

Scanning for MS17-010

Was reading about the WannaCrypt attacks. If you have the MS17-010 bulletin patches installed in your estate, you are safe. I wanted to quickly scan our estate to see if the servers are patches with this. Not my job really, but I wanted to do it anyways. 

The security bulletin page lists the actual patch numbers for each version of Windows. We only have Server 2008 – 2016 so that’s all I was interested in. 

Here’s a list of the Server name, internal version, and the patch they should have.

  • Server 2008 | 6.0.6002 | KB4012598
  • Server 2008 R2 | 6.1.7600 | KB4012215 or KB4012212
  • Server 2012 | 6.2.9200 | KB4012214 or KB4012217
  • Server 2012 R2 | 6.3.9600 | KB4012213 or KB4012216
  • Server 2016 | 10.0.14393 | KB4013429

One thing to bear in mind is that it’s possible a server doesn’t have the exact patch installed, but is still not at any risk. That is because since October 2016 Windows patches are cumulative. So if you don’t have the particular March 2017 patch installed, but do have the April 2017 one, you are good to go. The numbers above are from March 2017 – so you will have to update them with patch numbers of subsequent months too to be thorough. 

Another thing – I had one server in my entire estate where the patch above was actually installed but turned up as a false positive in my script. Not sure why. I know it isn’t a script issue. For some reason that patch wasn’t being returned as part of the “Win32_QuickFixEngineering” output. Am assuming it wasn’t installed that way on this particular server.

Without further ado, here’s the script I wrote:

That’s all. Nothing fancy. 

OU delegation not working (contd.) – finding protected groups

Turns out I was mistaken in my previous post. A few minutes after enabling inheritance, I noticed it was disabled again. So that means the groups must be protected by AD.

I knew of the AdminSDHolder object and how it provides a template set of permissions that are applied to protected accounts (i.e. members of groups that are protected). I also knew that there were some groups that are protected by default. What I didn’t know, however, what that the defaults can be changed. 

Initially I did a Compare-Object -ReferenceObject (Get-ADPrincipalGroupMembership User1) -DifferenceObject (Get-ADPrincipalGroupMembership User2) -IncludeEqual to compare the memberships of two random accounts that seemed to be protected. These were accounts with totally different roles & group memberships so the idea was to see if they had any common groups (none!) and failing that to see if the groups they were in had any common ancestors (none again!)

Then I Googled a bit :o) and came across a solution. 

Before moving on to that though, as a note to myself: 

  • The AdminSDHolder object is at CN=AdminSDHolder,CN=System,DC=domain,DC=com. Find that via ADSI Edit (replace the domain part accordingly). 
  • Right click the object and its Security tab lists the template permissions that will be applied to members of protected groups. You can make changes here. 
  • SDProp is a process that runs every 60 minutes on the DC holding the PDC Emulator role. The period can be changed via the registry key HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NTDS\Parameters\AdminSDProtectFrequency. (If it doesn’t exist, add it. DWORD). 
  • SDProp can be run manually if required. 

So back to my issue. Turns out if a group as its adminCount attribute set to 1 then it will be protected. So I ran the following against the OU containing my admin  account groups:

Bingo! Most of my admin groups were protected, so most admin accounts were protected. All I have to do now is either un-protect these groups (my preferred solution), or change the template to delegate permissions there. 

Update: Simply un-protecting a group does not un-protect all its members (this is by design). The member objects too have their adminCount attribute set to 1, so apart from fun-protecting the groups we must un-protect the members too. 

Update 2: Found this good post with lots more details. How to run the process manually, what are the default protected groups, etc. Read that post in conjunction with this one and you are set!

Update 3: You can unprotect the following default groups via dsHeuristics: 1) Account Operators, 2) Backup Operators, 3) Server Operators, 4) Print Operators. But that still leaves groups such as Administrators (built-in), Domain Admins, Enterprise Admins, Domain Controllers, Schema Admins, Read-Only Domain Controllers, and the user Administrator (built-in). There’s no way to un-protect members of these.

Something I hadn’t realized about adminCount. This attribute does not mean a group/ user will be protected. Instead, what it means is that if a group/ user is protected, and its ACLs have changed and are now reset to default, then the adminCount attribute will be set. So yes, adminCount will let you find groups/ users that are protected; but merely setting adminCount on a group/ user does not protect it. I learnt this the hard way while I was testing my changes. Set adminCount to 1 for a group and saw that nothing was happening.

Also, it is possible that a protected user/ group does not have adminCount set. This is because adminCount is only set if there is a difference in the ACLs between the user/ group and the AdminSDHolder object. If there’s no difference, a protected object will not have the adminCount attribute set. :)

OU delegation not working

Today I cracked a problem which had troubled us for a while but which I never really sat down and actually tried to troubleshoot. We had an OU with 3rd level admin accounts that no one else had rights to but wanted to delegate certain password related tasks to our Service Desk admins. Basically let them reset password, unlock the account, and enable/ disable. 

Here’s some screenshots for the delegation wizard. Password reset is a common task and can be seen in the screenshot itself. Enable/ Disable can be delegated by giving rights to the userAccountControl attribute. Only force password change rights (i.e. no reset password) can be given via the pwdLastSet attribute. And unlock can be given via the lockoutTime attribute

Problem was that in my case in spite of doing all this the delegated accounts had no rights!

Snooping around a bit I realized that all the admin accounts within the OU had inheritance disabled and so weren’t getting the delegated permissions from the OU (not sure why; and no these weren’t protected group members). 

Of course, enabling is easy. But I wanted to see if I could get a list of all the accounts in there with their inheritance status. Time for PowerShell. :)

The Get-ACL cmdlet can list access control lists. It can work with AD objects via the AD: drive. Needs a distinguished name, that’s all. So all you have to do is (Get-ADUser <accountname>).DistinguishedName) – prefix an AD: to this, and pass it to Get-ACL. Something like this:

The default result is useless. If you pipe and expand the Access property you will get a list of ACLs. 

The result is a series of entries like these:

The attribute names referred to by the GUIDs can be found in the AD Technical Specs

Of interest to us is the AreAccessRulesProtected property. If this is True then inheritance is disabled; if False inheritance is enabled. So it’s straight forward to make a list of accounts and their inheritance status:

So that’s it. Next step would be to enable inheritance on the accounts. I won’t be doing this now (as it’s bed time!) but one can do it manually or script it via the SetAccessRuleProtection method. This method takes two parameters (enable/ disable inheritance; and if disable then should we add/ remove existing ACEs). Only the first parameter is of significance in my case, but I have to pass the second parameter too anyways – SetAccessRuleProtection($False,$True).

Update: Here’s what I rolled out at work today to make the change.

Update 2: Didn’t realize I had many users in the built-in protected groups (these are protected even though their adminCount is 0 – I hadn’t realized that). To unprotect these one must set the dsHeuristics flag. The built-in protected groups are 1) Account Operators, 2) Server Operators, 3) Print Operators, and 4) Backup Operators. See this post on instructions (actually, see the post below for even better instructions).

Update 3: Found this amazing page that goes into a hell of details on this topic. Be sure to read this before modifying dsHeuristics.

Use PowerShell to get a list of GPOs without Authenticated Users in the delegation

Must have seen this recent Windows update that broke GPOs which were missing the Read permission for the “Authenticated Users” group. Solution is to get a list of these GPOs and add the “Authenticated Users” group to them. Here’s a one liner that gets you such a list –

This puts it into a file called GPOs.txt in the current directory. Remove/ Modify that last re-direct as needed.

Find which bay an HP blade server is in

So here’s the situation. We have a bunch of HP rack enclosures. Some blade servers were moved from one rack to another but the person doing the move forgot to note down the new location. I knew the iLO IP address but didn’t know which enclosure it was in. Rather than login to each enclosure OA, expand the device bays and iLO info and find the blade I was interested in, I wrote this batch file that makes use of SSH/ PLINK to quickly find the enclosure the blade was in.

Put this in a batch file in the same folder as PLINK and run it.

Note that this does depend on SSH access being allowed to your enclosures.

Update: An alternative way if you want to use PowerShell for the looping –

 

PowerShell Remoting Security links

Just some links I found on PowerShell remoting security –

Using SolarWinds to highlight servers in a pending reboot status

Had a request to use SolarWinds to highlight servers in a pending reboot status. Here’s what I did.

Sorry, this is currently broken. After implementing this I realized I need to enable PowerShell remoting on all servers for it to work, else the script just returns the result from the SolarWinds server. Will update this post after I fix it at my workplace. If you come across this post before that, all you need to do is enable PowerShell remoting across all your servers and change the script execution to “Remote Host”.

SolarWinds has a built in application monitor called “Windows Update Monitoring”. It does a lot more than what I want so I disabled all the components I am not interested in. (I could have also just created a new application monitor, I know, just was lazy).

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The part I am interested in is the PowerShell Monitor component. By default it checks for the reboot required status by checking a registry key: HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\WindowsUpdate\Auto Update\RebootRequired. Here’s the default script –

Inspired by this blog post which monitors three more registry keys and also queries ConfigMgr, I replaced the default PowerShell script with the following –

Then I added the application monitor to all my Windows servers. The result is that I can see the following information on every node –

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Following this I created alerts to send me an email whenever the status of the above component (“Machine restart status …”) went down for any node. And I also created a SolarWinds report to capture all nodes for which the above component was down.

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Then I assigned this to a schedule to run once in a month after our patching window to email me a list of nodes that require reboots.

 

Solarwinds – “The WinRM client cannot process the request”

Added the Exchange 2010 Database Availability Group application monitor to couple of our Exchange 2010 servers and got the following error –

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Clicking “More” gives the following –

error2

This is because Solarwinds is trying to run a PowerShell script on the remote server and the script is unable to run due to authentication errors. That’s because Solarwinds is trying to connect to the server using its IP address, and so instead of using Kerberos authentication it resorts to Negotiate authentication (which is disabled). The error message too says the same but you can verify it for yourself from the Solarwinds server too. Try the following command

This is what’s happening behind the scenes and as you will see it fails. Now replace “Negotiate” with “Kerberos” and it succeeds –

So, how to fix this? Logon to the remote server and launch IIS Manager. It’s under “Administrative Tools” and may not be there by default (my server only had “Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0 Manager”), in which case add it via Server Manager/ PowerShell –

Then open IIS Manager, go to Sites > PowerShell and double click “Authentication”.

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Select “Windows Authentication” and click “Enable”.

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Now Solarwinds will work.