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© Rakhesh Sasidharan

Notes on NLB, VMware, etc

Just some notes to myself so I am clear about it while reading about it. In the context of this VMware KB article – Microsoft NLB not working properly in Unicast mode.

Before I get to the article I better talk about a regular scenario. Say you have a switch and it’s got a couple of devices connected to it. A switch is a layer 2 device – meaning, it has no knowledge of IP addresses and networks etc. All devices connected to a switch are in the same network. The devices on a switch use MAC addresses to communicate with each other. Yes, the devices have IPv4 (or IPv6) addresses but how they communicate to each other is via MAC addresses.

Say Server A (IPv4 address 10.136.21.12) wants to communicate with Server B (IPv4 address 10.136.21.22). Both are connected to the same switch, hence on the same LAN. Communication between them happens in layer 2. Here the machines identify each other via MAC addresses, so first Server A checks whether it knows the MAC address of Server B. If it knows (usually coz Server A has communicated with Server B recently and the MAC address is cached in its ARP table) then there’s nothing to do; but if it does not, then Server A finds the MAC address via something called ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). The way this works is that Server A broadcasts to the whole network that it wants the MAC address of the machine with IPv4 address 10.136.21.22 (the address of Server B). This message goes to the switch, the switch sends it to all the devices connected to it, Server B replies with its MAC address and that is sent to Server A. The two now communicate – I’ll come to that in a moment.

When it’s communication from devices in a different network to Server A or Server B, the idea is similar except that you have a router connected to the switch. The router receives traffic for a device on this network – it knows the IPv4 address – so it finds the MAC address similar to above and passes it to that device. Simple.

Now, how does the switch know which port a particular device is connected to. Say the switch gets traffic addresses to MAC address 00:eb:24:b2:05:ac – how does the switch know which port that is on? Here’s how that happens –

  • First the switch checks if it already has this information cached. Switches have a table called the CAM (Content Addressable Memory) table which holds this cached info.
  • Assuming the CAM table doesn’t have this info the switch will send the frame (containing the packets for the destination device) to all ports. Note, this is not like ARP where a question is sent asking for the device to respond; instead the frame is simply sent to all ports. It is broadcast to the whole network.
  • When a switch receives frames from a port it notes the source MAC address and port and that’s how it keeps the CAM table up to date. Thus when Server A sends data to Server B, the MAC address and switch port of Server A are stored in the switch’s CAM table.  This entry is only stored for a brief period.

Now let’s talk about NLB (Network Load Balancing).

Consider two machines – 10.136.21.11 with MAC address 00:eb:24:b2:05:ac and 10.136.21.12 with MAC address 00:eb:24:b2:05:ad. NLB is a form of load balancing wherein you create a Virtual IP (VIP) such as 10.136.21.10 such that any traffic to 10.136.21.10 is sent to either of 10.136.21.11 or 10.136.21.12. Thus you have the traffic being load balanced between the two machines; and not only that if any one of the machines go down, nothing is affected because the other machine can continue handling the traffic.

But now we have a problem. If we want a VIP 10.136.21.10 that should send traffic to either host, how will this work when it comes to MAC addresses? That depends on the type of NLB. There’s two sorts – Unicast and Multicast.

In Unicast the NIC that is used for clustering on each server has its MAC address changed to a new Unicast MAC address that’s the same for all hosts. Thus for example, the NIC that holds the NLB IP address 10.136.21.10 in the scenario above will have its MAC address changed from 00:eb:24:b2:05:ac and 00:eb:24:b2:05:ad respectively to (say) 00:eb:24:b2:05:af. Note that the MAC address is a Unicast MAC (which basically means the MAC address looks like a regular MAC address, such as that assigned to a single machine). Since this is a Unicast MAC address, and by definition it can only be assigned to one machine/ switch port, the NLB driver on each machines cheats a bit and changes the source MAC address address to whatever the original NIC MAC address was. That is to say –

  • Server IP 10.136.21.11
    • Has MAC address 00:eb:24:b2:05:ac
    • Which is changed to a MAC address of 00:eb:24:b2:05:af as part of the Unicast IP/ enabling NLB
    • However when traffic is sent out from this machine the MAC address is changed back to 00:eb:24:b2:05:ac
  • Same for Server 10.136.21.12

Why does this happen? This is because –

  • When a device wants to send data to the VIP address, it will try find the MAC address using ARP. That is, it sends a broadcast over the network asking for the device with this IP address to respond. Since both servers now have the same MAC address for their NLB NIC either server will respond with this common MAC address.
  • Now the switch receives frames for this MAC address. The switch does not have this in its CAM table so it will broadcast the frame to all ports – reaching either of the servers.
  • But why does outgoing traffic from either server change the MAC address of outgoing traffic? That’s because if outgoing frames have the common MAC address, then the switch will associate this common MAC address with that port – resulting in all future traffic to the common MAC address only going to one of the servers. By changing the outgoing frame MAC address back to the server’s original MAC address, the switch never gets to store the common MAC address in its CAM table and all frames for the common MAC address are always broadcast.

In the context of VMware what this means is that (a) the port group to which the NLB NICs connect to must allow changes to the MAC address and allow forged transmits; and (b) when a VM is powered on the port group by default notifies the physical switch of the VMs MAC address, since we want to avoid this because this will expose the cluster MAC address to the switch this notification too must be disabled. Without these changes NLB will not work in Unicast mode with VMware.

(This is a good post to read more about NLB).

Apart from Unicast NLB there’s also Multicast NLB. In this form the NLB NIC’s MAC address is not changed. Instead, a new Multicast MAC address is assigned to the NLB NIC. This is in addition to the regular MAC address of the NIC. The advantage of this method is that since each host retains its existing MAC address the communication between hosts is unaffected. However, since the new MAC address is a Multicast MAC address – and switches by default are set to ignore such address – some changes need to be done on the switch side to get Multicast NLB working.

One thing to keep in mind is that it’s important to add a default gateway address to your NLB NIC. At work, for instance, the NLB IPv4 address was reachable within the network but from across networks it wasn’t. Turns out that’s coz Windows 2008 onwards have a strong host behavior – traffic coming in via one NIC does not go out via a different NIC, even if both are in the same subnet and the second NIC has a default gateway set. In our case I added the same default gateway to the NLB NIC too and it was then reachable across networks. 

User PowerShell/ PowerCLI to get VM space usage

Wanted to get the space used by all VMs across a bunch of our newer hosts –

There’s probably a way to show the total too but I used a separate pipeline for that –