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© Rakhesh Sasidharan

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Refresher to myself StoreFront and Delivery Controller authentication

In a previous post I had written about the flow of communication between Citrix Storefront and Delivery Controllers during user authentication. Here’s some more based on a Citrix blog post I am reading. 

Here’s what I had written in my previous post:

There’s a couple of steps that happens when a user logs in to access a Citrix solution. First: the StoreFront authenticates the user against AD. Or if the user is accessing remotely, the NetScaler gateway authenticates the user and passes on details to the StoreFront. Then the StoreFront passes on this information to the Delivery Controller so the latter can give a list of resources the user has access to. The Delivery Controllers in turn authenticate the user AD. The Delivery Controller then sends a list of resources the user has access to, to the StoreFront, which sends this on to the user’s Citrix Receiver or Browser. This is when the user sees what is available to them, and can select what they want.

When the user selects what they want, this is information is passed on to the StoreFront, which then passes the info to the Delivery Controller – who then finds an appropriate host that can fulfill the requirement and sends this information to the StoreFront. 

Emphasis mine. The Storefront communicates with the Delivery Controller using the XML Service. 

Here’s a list of authentication methods supported by the Storefront. 

When the Storefront communicates the user authentication information to the Delivery Controller, it may or may not include the password too (sent in clear-text) in this communication. If “User name and password” or “Pass-through from NetScaler” is selected, then the password is included. If “Domain pass-through” or “Smart card” is selected, then the password is not. The blog post doesn’t say anything about these, but I think “SAML Authentication” (used for ADFS) will not include the password, while “HTTP Basic” will. 

The StoreFront and Delivery Controller communicates twice (the two times I emphasized above). The first time is when the user authenticates and the StoreFront sends this information to the Delivery Controller to get a list of resources. The second time is when the user makes a selection and this information is passed on to the Delivery Controller so that an appropriate host can be selected. In both instances the password could be sent from the StoreFront to the Delivery Controller.

Brief notes on the Citrix STA

Wanted to point out this PDF from Citrix on the XenApp/ XenDesktop architecture – especially pages 21, 22 which are on how authentication works. During my Citrix course the instructor had talked about it but like an idiot I didn’t take notes and now I can’t find much info on what he was explaining. 

The part which is of interest to me is the STA (Secure Ticket Authority). 

There’s a couple of steps that happens when a user logs in to access a Citrix solution. First: the StoreFront authenticates the user against AD. Or if the user is accessing remotely, the NetScaler gateway authenticates the user and passes on details to the StoreFront. Then the StoreFront passes on this information to the Delivery Controller so the latter can give a list of resources the user has access to. The Delivery Controllers in turn authenticate the user AD. The Delivery Controller then sends a list of resources the user has access to, to the StoreFront, which sends this on to the user’s Citrix Receiver or Browser. This is when the user sees what is available to them, and can select what they want.

When the user selects what they want, this is information is passed on to the StoreFront, which then passes the info to the Delivery Controller – who then finds an appropriate host that can fulfill the requirement and sends this information to the StoreFront. 

The next step is where the STA comes in. 

In case the user is accessing Citrix locally, the StoreFront can create an ICA file with details of the host and send it over to the user’s Citrix Receiver or Browser and the latter can then directly talk to the VDA agent installed on the host (note the StoreFront & Delivery Controller have no more role to play). But what if the user is accessing remotely? We don’t want to send these sensitive details over the public Internet. So, as a workaround, Citrix creates a “ticket” (which is a randomly generated sequence of 32 uppercase alphabetic or numeric characters) and associates the ticket with the details of the host that the Citrix Receiver or Browser need to contact to access the requested resources. This ticket is what is sent over to Citrix Receiver or Browser in the ICA file, using which it can contact the NetScaler gateway and the NetScaler gateway can validate this and initiate a connection with the VDA on the host on behalf of the user. 

So, as we can see the STA only comes into play in case of remote access. The STA is a part of the Citrix XML Service (once again linking to this excellent post!), which is installed as part of the Delivery Controller (so the STA is a part of the Delivery Controller). It is written as an ISAPI extension (called CtxSta.dll) for the IIS WebServer and runs the /Scripts/CtxSta.dll URL. The STA has an ID called the STA_ID, and this along with the TICKET and an STA_VERSION field are what is put into the ICA file. I am not sure whether the STA requires IIS, or it can run standalone (as I blogged previously the Citrix XML Service can run standalone so I would assume the STA can do the same). The Citrix STA FAQ says IIS is required, but that could be outdated.

The Citrix StoreFront is configured with the STA details in the NetScaler Gateway section (remember you only need to use the STA in case of remote users, for which you would have to configure a NetScaler Gateway). 

Similarly the NetScaler itself is configured with the STA details. 

It is important to keep in mind that there are thus TWO places where the STA details are input, and that the details in both places must be the same. The StoreFront uses its configured details to generate a ticket and put it in the ICA file. And the StoreFront uses its configured details to validate that ticket with an STA and identify what resources it should connect to. If the two details are not identical then you will not be able to launch any resources! (I had this problem at work today which is why I decided to refresh my knowledge about STAs and thought of writing this blog post. If the two details are not identical you will get a “Cannot start App:” error because the ticket the client has cannot be validated or used by the NetScaler). 

Just as an aside to myself – the port used to talk to the VDA is 1494 or 2598. This is the case if the Citrix Receiver or Browser contacts the VDA, or if the NetScaler gateway does so on behalf of these. I like to remember port numbers. :o) 

Also – there is nothing that ties a particular STA generated ticket to the device where the request was made from. That is, in theory a remote user could make a request from Computer A, get the ICA file and run it on Computer B – and NetScaler + STA will happily let the user access resources. A ticket only has a 100 seconds validity, so they’d have to do this switch-over quickly though. ;o) Also, a ticket can only be used once. (Also this and more info are from the very informative Citrix STA FAQ by the way). 

Creating an AD certificate for NetScaler 10.5

This post is based on a post by someone else that I found while I had to do this today. I wanted to configure NetScaler 10.5 with Citrix Storefront 3.9 and found that post useful, but some of the screenshots were different in my case – so thought I’d write it down for my future self. This post is going to be less on writing and more of screenshots as I am feeling very lazy.

So without much further ado –

Login to the NetScaler and create an RSA Key

1-2-3 as below.

Fill in the following fields and click “Create”.

The file name and extension doesn’t matter but we will refer to it later.

Create a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) on the NetScaler

Again, the request file name does not matter. The key filename & password is same as what we used earlier. There’s few more fields to fill – obvious ones like the organization name etc, the mandatory ones have an asterisk – then click “Create”.

Open the CSR

Click the link to view. Then click the link to “save text to a file”.

Login to your AD Certification Authority and submit the request

I am going to use the command line as the CSR doesn’t contain info on what template the CA should use, and that gives an error on the GUI: “0x80094801 – the request contains no certificate template information”.

Using the command line is simple. Open the command prompt and type the following:

This will prompt you for the location of the CSR and also the CA to use etc.

If you get any error about missing templates here, it’s possible you haven’t added the “Web Server” template to your CA templates. You can via this menu –

The command will also prompt for a location to save the generated certificate at. Save it someplace, then go back to the NetScaler.

Login to the NetScaler and install this certificate

Click the Install button as above. Then fill in the details as below. The certificate-key pair name does not matter. The certificate file name is chosen by clicking on “Browse”, then “Local”, and selecting the certificate file that you previously saved. The key file name and password are same as what you typed in the initial screenshot.

Finally, click “Install”.

That’s it! The NetScaler now has a certificate issued by the AD CA.