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AD Domain Password policies

Password policies are set in the “Computer Configuration” section at Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Account Policies\Password Policy.

The policy applies to the computer as user objects are stored in the database of the computer. A Domain Controller is a special computer in that its database holds user objects for the entire domain, so it takes its password policy settings from whatever policy wins at the domain level. What this means is that you can have multiple policies in a domain – each containing different password policies – but the only one that matters for domain users is the policy that wins at the domain level. Any policy that applies to OUs will only apply to local user objects that reside in the SAM database of computers in that OU. 

A quick recap on how GPO precedence works: OU linked GPOs override Domain linked GPOs which override Site linked GPOs which override local GPOs (i.e. OU > Domain > Site > local). Within each of these there can be multiple GPOs. The link order matters here. The GPOs with lower link order win over GPOs with higher link order (i.e. link order 1 > link order 2 > …). Of course all these precedence order can be subverted if a GPO is set as enforced. In this case the parent GPO cannot be overridden by a child GPO. 

By default the Default Domain Policy is set at the Domain level and has link order 1. If you want to change the password policy for the domain you can either modify this GPO, or create a new GPO and apply it at the Domain level (but remember to set it at a lower link order than the Default Domain Policy – i.e. link order 1 for instance). 

For a list of the password policy settings check out this TechNet page. 

Since Windows Server 2008 it is possible to have Fine Grained Password Policies (FGPP) that can apply to OUs. These are not GPOs, so you can’t set them via GPMC. For Server 2008 this TechNet page has instructions (you have to use PowerShell or ADSI Edit), for Server 2012 check out this blog post (you can use ADAC; obviously Server 2012 makes it easier). Check out this article too for Server 2008 (it is better than the TechNet page which is … dense on details). 

Replicate with repadmin

The following command replicates the specified partition from the source DC to the destination DC. You can use this command to force a replication. Note that these three arguments are mandatory. 

An optional switch /full will HWMV and UTDV tables to be reset, replicating all changes from the source DC to the destination DC.

The following command synchronizes the specified DC with all its replication partners. You can specify a partition to replicate; if nothing is specified, the Configuration partition is used by default

Instead of specifying a partition the /A switch can be used to sync all partitions held by the DC. By default only partner DCs in the same site are replicated with, but the /e switch will cause replication to happen with all partners across all sites. Also, changes can be pushed from the DC to others rather than pulled (the default) using the /P switch. 

SOA records (and dynamic DNS in Windows)

I am on the DNS section of my notes from the AD WorkshopPLUS I attended a few months back. That’s why the recent posts are about DNS …

The SOA (Start of Authority) record is something DNS administrators are familiar with. It specifies details about the zone such as the serial number (which can be used by secondary name servers to know the zone has changed), the preferred refresh periods for secondary name servers to sync the zone, the time between retries, whom to contact, the primary name server, and so on. Here’s the SOA record for my rakhesh.com domain:

(In the example above the results also include all the name server records of the zone, but that needn’t be the case always).

In traditional zones you have one primary name server and many secondaries. So you can set one server as the primary in the record above. But what about AD-integrated zones? Since each DNS server is also a primary in that case, things are a bit different. 

What happens is that the primary name server is set to the name of whichever DNS server you ask. Thus, if you query WIN-DC01 for the SOA record to rakhesh.local, it will give itself as the primary, while if you query WIN-DC02 it will return itself as the primary. 

In Windows the name server returned by the SOA record is also used by clients for dynamic DNS updates. Clients query DNS for the SOA record. Whichever server they get a response from will return an SOA record containing itself as the primary name server. Clients then use that name server to dynamically register their A and PTR records. 

An exception to the above is Read-Only DCs (RODCs). These point to another server as the SOA for the zone. A new server is selected every 20 mins. When clients contact a RODC DNS server, they thus get another server as primary in the SOA record and send their dynamic updates to this other server. 

PortQry and PortQryUI

I was aware of PortQry but didn’t know it has a GUI counterpart too PortQryUI. For a quick read on PortQry check out this link, if you have more time and interest check out this KB article. PortQry/ PortQryUI can be used to check the status of TCP and UDP ports on a remote computer. For TCP ports I usually do a telnet to the port (by habit) but didn’t have any equivalent tool for UDP ports. 

Important PortQry switches (as a reference to myself) are:

  • -n -> specifies the server name/ IP address to target
  • -p -> specifies the protocol to test (options are tcp or udp or both; default is tcp)
  • -e -> specifies the port(s) to test (default is port 80)
    • note: it is possible to specify a single port (e.g. -e 81), ports (e.g. -e 80,81) or a range (e.g. -e 80-1024)
    • note: the ports must be in the range 1-65535
  • instead of -e you can use either of the following too:
    • -r -> specifies a port range (e.g. –r 80:90)
    • -o -> specifies a comma-separated list of ports to check in order (e.g. -o 80,443,139)

Some other switches are:

  • -nr -> stops PortQry from resolving an IP address to a name
  • -sl -> waits longer for replies from UDP systems (sl == slow link)
  • -l -> specifies a log file to output to
    • -y -> will over-write the log file if it exists, without prompting

While writing this post I learnt that PortQry can also enumerate the local ports. Nice!

  • The -local switch will list all active TCP/UDP ports on the local system. (Think of it as netstat -a but without any details of the remote end).
  • The -wport (port number) switch will watch a specified port’s state and report when it changes
    • This didn’t work for me, got an error “Port to process mapping is not supported on this system”.
  • The -wpid (PID) switch will watch a specified process ID (PID) and reports when its state changes
    • This too didn’t work for me, same error as above.

A good thing about PortQry is that it can also query protocols that it’s aware of. Thus, for instance, if you query port 53/ UDP (DNS) and something’s listening at the remote end, PortQry can send an additional DNS query to that port. 

This is useful in AD troubleshooting too. For instance, to check whether port 389 of a DC has an LDAP server listening as it should be:

Similarly, RPC:

In the output above, for instance, I query port 135/ TCP which is where the RPC end-mapper service listens. After querying this port and getting a response, PortQry asks it to enumerate the listening services. Of these UUID 12345887-... is what the netlogon service registers under, which as we can see from the above output is listening on ports 49155 (via TCP), 49158 (via TCP), and 49157 (via HTTP). (Netlogon registers with RPC and uses dynamic ports as we saw above, so querying the RPC end-mapper service is the only way to find what ports Netlogon is listening on). 

In contrast to PortQry, PortQryUI has options to query for the services it is aware of. So, for instance, one can use it to query the “Domains and Trusts” service on a DC and it will do PortQry queries to port 135/TCP, port 389/BOTH, port 445/TCP, port 137/UDP, and a few other AD related ports and emit the output in a window (you can see part of the output in the screenshot below). 

portqryUI

SRV records and AD

Example of an SRV record:

Format is:

Where:

  • class is always IN
  • TTL is in seconds 
  • service is the name of the service (example: LDAP, GC, DC, Kerberos). It is preceded by an underscore (prevents collisions with any existing names). 
  • protocol is the protocol over which the service is offered (example: TCP, UDP). It is preceded by an underscore (prevents collisions with any existing names). 
  • domain is the DNS name of the domain for which the service is offered. 
  • host is the machine that will provide this service. 
  • SRV is the text SRV. Indicates that this is an SRV record. 
  • priority is the priority of the host. Similar to SMTP MX record priorities. Host with lower number has higher preference (similar to SMTP records). 
  • weight allows for load balancing between hosts of the same priority. Host with higher number has higher preference (intuitive: higher weight wins).

Similar to MX records, the host of an SRV record must be a name with an A or AAAA record. It cannot point to a CNAME record. 

A machine starting up in a domain can easily query for DCs of that domain via DNS. DCs provide the LDAP service, so a query for _ldap._tcp.dnsdomain will return a list of DCs the machine can use. 

On DCs, the netlogon service registers many records relevant to the services offered by the DC. The A records of the DC are registered by the DNS client service (for Server 2008 and above) but the other records are taken care of by the netlogon service. A copy of the registered records is also stored in the %systemroot%\system32\config\netlogon.dns file in case it needs to be imported manually or compared for troubleshooting. Note that each DC only adds the records for itself. That is, WIN-DC01 for instance, will add a record like this:

It will not add records for WIN-DC02 and others as it does not know of them. The records added by each DC will be combined together in the DNS database as it replicates and gets records from all the DCs, so when a client queries for the above record, for instance, it will get records added by all DCs. 

AD creates a sub-domain called _msdcs.domainname to hold items pertaining to AD for that domain. (MSDCS = Microsoft Domain Controller Services) This sub-domain is created for each domain (including child-domains) of the forest. The _msdcs sub-domain belonging to the forest root domain is special in that it is a separate zone that is replicated to all DNS servers in the forest. The other _msdcs sub-domains are part of the parent zone itself. For instance below are the _msdcs sub-domains for a forest root domain (rakhesh.local) and the _msdcs sub-domain for a child domain (anoushka.rakhesh.local). Notice how the former is a separate zone with a delegation to it, while the latter is a part of the parent zone. 

For forest-root domain

For forest-root domain

For child-domain

For child-domain

Under the _msdcs sub-domain a convention such as the following is used:

Here DcType is one of dc (domain controller), gc (global catalog), pdc (primary domain controller), or domains (GUIDs of the domains).

The various SRV records registered by netlogon can be found at this link. Note that SRV records are created under both the domain/ child-domain and the forest root domain (the table in the link marks these accordingly). Below are some of the entries added by netlogon for DCs – WIN-DC04 and WIN-DC05 – in a site called KOTTAYAM for my domain anoushka.rakhesh.local. Of these WIN-DC05 is also a GC. 

Advertise that the DCs offer the LDAP service over TCP protocol for the anoushka.rakhesh.local domain:

Advertise that the DCs offer the LDAP service over TCP protocol for the anoushka.rakhesh.local domain for both sites of the forest (even though the DCs themselves are only in a single site – this way clients in any site can get these DC names when querying DNS SRV records):

WIN-DC05 has a few additional records compared to WIN-DC04 because it is a GC. 

Notice all of them are specific to its site and are created in the forest root domain zone/ _msdcs sub-domain of the forest root domain. This is because GCs are used forest-wide also. In contrast, similar records advertising the DC service are created for both sites and in the _msdcs sub-domain of the child zone:

To re-register SRV records, either restart the netlogon service of a DC or use nltest as below:

 

Useful ldp queries

Just dumping useful ldp.exe queries as I come across/ think of them. Better to keep them here in one consolidated post for future reference …

Find all GCs in the forest

If a DC is a GC, its NTDS Setting object has an attribute called options whose value is 0x1. Not sure if a DC is a GC and something else, whether the value changes, but for now I’ll assume it doesn’t and so one can quickly search for all GCs in the forest by connecting to the Configuration partition and filtering by the following:

  • Filter: (&(cn=NTDS Settings)(options=1))
  • Base DN: CN=Configuration,DC=domainname
  • Attributes: distinguishedName
  • Scope: Subtree

 

Notes on AD Replication (contd.)

This post is a continuation to my previous one

How the AD Replication Model Works

(source)

Conflict Resolution

Previously I mentioned that conflict resolution in AD does not depend on timestamp. What is used instead of the “volatility” of changes. Here’s how it works in practice. 

Remember the replication metadata stored on each object? The ones you can view using repadmin /showobjmeta. I mentioned 5 metadata there – the Local USN, the Originating DSA, the Originating USN, the Originating Timestamp, and Version. Three of these metadata are used a conflict resolution stamp for every attribute:

  • Version, which as we know is updated each time the attribute is updated
  • Originating Timestamp, which is the timestamp from the DC where the update originated from
  • Originating DSA, which is not the DSA name or GUID as you’d expect from the repadmin output, but the invocationID of the DSA where the update originated from.

How is this stamp used? If there’s a conflict to an attribute – i.e. a change is made to an attribute on two separate DCs – first the Version is considered. Whichever update has the higher Version wins. Notice how the timestamp of the change doesn’t matter. Say WIN-DC01 had a change to an attribute twice (thus incrementing the Version twice) while WIN-DC02 had a change to the same attribute once, but at a later time, and both these changes reached WIN-DC03 together – the change from WIN-DC01 will win over the later change from WIN-DC02 because the number of changes were more there. 

If two conflicting changes have the same Version then the timestamp is considered. This has a one-second resolution, and so unless the conflict changes happened at the exact same second this is usually enough to resolve the conflict. 

However, if both Version and timestamp are unable to resolve the conflict, then the invocationID is considered. This is guaranteed to be different for each DC, and is random, so whichever change is from a DC with higher invocationID wins. 

Replication Metadata

The Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) (will be discussed in a later post) is the component that is responsible for maintaining the replication topology. It is maintains connection objects with the replication partners and stores this information, for each domain partition, in a multivalued attribute called repsFrom in the root of that domain partition. 

For example, here are the replication partners for WIN-DC02. Although not shown here, WIN-DC04 & WIn-DC05 are of a child domain. 

win-dc02-replications

Now consider the repsFrom attribute of the domain partition on WIN-DC02: 

And here’s the repsFrom from the Configuration partition:

Each entry starts from dwVersion and contains information like the number of failures, time of last successful sync, the DSA GUID, the database GUID, USNs, etc. Since only one DC is replicating with WIN-DC02 for the domain partition there’s only one value for that partition; while there are three DCs replicating for the Configuration partition and so there are three values for that partition. 

Each DC polls the DSAs (DCs) in this attribute for changes (that’s for the scheduled changes, not the ones where the source DC sends and update to all its partners and they poll for changes). If a DC is demoted – i.e. its NTDS settings object is deleted (i.e. the DSA is no longer valid) – the KCC will remove this DSA from the attribute. This prevents replication attempts to demoted DCs. (Prior to Windows 2003 though, and even now if this attribute is assigned a value, there used to be an attribute called replTopologyStayOfExecution. This value had a default of 14 days, and a maximum value of half the tombstone lifetime (the period for which deleted objects are retained). In the presence of this attribute – which existed by default in Window Server 2003 and prior, and can be set if required in later versions – if the KCC detects an invalid DSA, instead of removing it from the repsFrom attribute it will let it remain until such time the duration of the object being deleted exceeds replTopologyStayOfExecution). 

Atomicity

Atomicity is a term encountered in databases and operating systems (I first encountered it during my CS classes, specifically the OS course I think). An atomic operation can be thought of as an indivisible operation – meaning all events that take place during an atomic operation either take place together, or they don’t. (It comes from the idea that an atom was thought to be indivisible). With respect to databases, this is a guarantee that if a bunch of values are written in an atomic operation, either all the values are written or none of them. There’s no confusion that perhaps only a few values got committed while the rest were missed out. Even if one value didn’t get written, all others will not be written. That’s the guarantee! 

In the context of AD, updates are written to the AD database. And all attribute updates to a single object will be written atomically in a single transaction. However:

  • If the attributes are linked attributes (remember the previous post where there are attributes with forward and back links, for e.g. member and memberOf) the updates won’t be atomic – not too surprising, they are for different objects after all, and also usually the back link is generated by the system not sent as an update. 
  • Remember: the maximum number of values that can be written in a single transaction is 5000. 
  • To ensure that (nonlinked) attributes to an object are written atomically, updates to nonlinked attributes are prioritized over updates to linked attributes. This happens when a source DC packages all the updates into replication packets. The DC prioritizes nonlinked attributes over linked attributes. When it comes to writing the updates to the destination DC database though:
    • For linked attributes, because of parent-child relationships the objects might be written out of order to how the updates are received. This is to ensure that objects are created before any links are applied to that object.
    • When an object already exists on the destination DC, even though nonlined attributes are replicated first, they are not guaranteed to be written first to the database. Generally they are applied first, but it’s not guaranteed. (Note to self: I am not very clear about this point)
  • Remember: the number of values in a replication packet is approximately 100. If there are more than 100 values, again the nonlinked attributes are tried to put in one packet, while the linked attributes can span multiple packets. In such cases, when they are written on the destination DC database, all updates to a single object can require multiple transactions. (They are still guaranteed to be written in the same replication cycle). 
  • Note: Only originating updates must be applied in the same database transaction. Replicated updates can be applied in more than one database transaction.

 

Notes on AD Replication, Updates, Attributes, USN, High-Watermark Vector, Up-to-dateness Vector, Metadata, etc.

Reading a couple of AD Replication posts from TechNet/ MSDN. Below are my notes on them. 

Note

This is a super long post! It began as notes to the TechNet/ MSDN posts but it quickly grew into more. Lots of additional stuff and examples from my side/ other blog posts. Perhaps I should have split these into separate posts but I didn’t feel like it.

What is the AD Replication Model?

(source)

  • AD makes use of pull replication and not push. That is, each DC pulls in changes from other DCs (as opposed to the DC that has changes pushing these to targets). Reason for pulling instead of pushing is that only the destination DC knows what changes it needs. It is possible it has got some changes from another DC – remember AD is multimaster – so no point pushing all changes to a destination DC.
  • Initial replication to a new DC in the domain is via LDAP. Subsequent replications are via RPC.
  • All DCs do not replicate with all other DCs. They only replicate with a subset of DCs, as determined by the replication topology. (I am not sure, but I think this is only in the case of InterSite replication …). This is known as store and forward replication. DCs store updates they get from replication partners ams forward these to other DCs.
  • There are two sorts of replication – state-based and log-based.
    • State-based means DCs apply updates to their replicas (their copies of the partitions) as and when they arrive.
    • In log-based replication each DC maintains a log of the changes and sends this log to all other DCs. Once a destination DC receives this log it applies it to its replica and becomes up-to-date. This also means the destination DC will receive a list of all changes (from the source DC perspective), not just the changes it wants. 
    • Active Directory (actually called Active Directory Domain Services since Server 2008) uses state-based replication. 
    • Each DC maintains a list of objects by last modification. This way it can easily examine the last few objects in the list to identify how much of the replication source’s changes have already been processed. 

Linked & Multivalued attributes

Before the next post it’s worth going into Linked attributes and Multivalued attributes.

  • Linked attributes are pairs of attributes. AD calculates the value of one of the attributes (called the “back link”) based on the value of the other attribute (called the “forward link”). For example: group membership. Every user object has an attribute called memberOf. You can’t see this by default in ADUC in the “Attribute Editor” tab. But if you click “Filter” and select to show “Backlinks” too then you can view this attribute. backlinks The memberOf attribute is an example of a back link. And it’s generated by AD, which is why it’s a read-only attribute. It’s counterpart, the forward link, is the member attribute of a group object. Linked attributes are linked together in the schema. In the schema definitions of those attributes – which are instances of an attributeSchema class – there is a linkID attribute that defines the back and forward links. The attribute with an even linkID is the forward link (the write-able attribute that we can set) while the attribute with a linkID that’s one more than the linkID of the forward link is the back link (the read-only, AD generated attribute). For instance, using ADSI Edit I found the CN=Member,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=mydomain object in the Schema partition. This is the schema definition of the member attribute. Being a forward link it has an even linkID. linkid Its counterpart can be easily found using ldp.exe. Search the Schema partition for all objects with linkID of 3. linkid-2 The result is CN=Is-Member-Of-DL,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=mydomain, which is the attributeSchema object defining the memberOf attribute (notice the lDAPDisplayName attribute of this object in the above screenshot).
    • It’s worth taking a moment to understand the above example. When one uses ADUC to change a user/ group’s group membership, all one does is go to the user/ group object, the “Member Of” tab, and add a group. This gives the impression that the actual action happens in the user/ group object. But as we see above that’s not the case. Although ADUC may give such an impression, when we add a user/ group to a group, it is the group that gets modified with the new members and this reflects in the user/ group object that we see. ADUC makes the change on the user/ group, but the DSA makes the real change behind the scenes. The cause and effect is backwards here …
    • Another obvious but not so obvious point is that when you add a user/ group to a group, it is the group’s whenChanged attribute that gets changed and it is the change to the group that is replicated throughout the domain. The user object has no change and nothing regarding it is replicated. Obvious again, because the change really happens on the group and the effect we see on the user/ group is what AD calculates and shows us. 
  • Multivalued attributes, as the name suggests, are attributes that can hold multiple values. Again, a good example would be group membership. The member and memberOf attributes mentioned above are also multivalued attributes. Obvious, because a group can contain multiple members, and a user/ group can be a member of multiple groups. Multivalued attributes can be identified by an attribute isSingleValued in their attributeSchema definition. If this value is TRUE it’s a single valued attribute, else its a multivalued attribute.

How the AD Replication Model Works

(source)

A must read post if you are interested in the details! 

On replication

  • AD objects have attributes. AD replicates data at the attribute level – i.e. only changes to the attributes are replicated, not the entire object itself. 
    • Attributes that cannot be changed (for e.g. back links, administrative attributes) are never replicated. 
  • Updates from the same directory partition are replicated as a unit to the destination DC – i.e. over the same network connection – to optimize network traffic.
  • Updates are always specific a single directory partition. 
  • Replication of data between DCs consist of replication cycles (i.e. the DCs keep replicating until all the data has replicated). 
    • There’s no limit to the number of values that can be transferred in a replication cycle. 
    • The transfer of data happens via replication packets. Approximately 100 values can be transferred per packet. 
      • Replication packets encode the data using ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax Notation One) BER (Basic Encoding Rules). Check out Wikipedia and this post for more information on ASN.1 BER (note: ASN.1 defines the syntax; BER defines the encoding. There are many other encodings such as CER, DER, XER but BER is what LDAP uses). See this blog post for an example LDAP message (scroll down to the end). 
    • Once a replication cycle has begun, all updates on the source DC – including updates that occur during the replication cycle – are send to the destination DC. 
    • If an attribute changes multiple times between replication cycles only the latest value is replicated. 
    • As soon as an attribute is written to the AD database of a DC, it is available for replication. 
  • The number of values that can be written in a single database transaction (i.e. the destination DC has all the updates and needs to commit them to the AD database) is 5000. 
    • All updates to a single object are guaranteed to be written as a single database transaction. This way the state of an object is always consistent with the DC and there are no partially updated objects. 
      • However, for updates to a large number of values to multivalued attributes (e.g. the member attribute from the examples above) the update may not happen in the same transaction. In such cases the values are still guaranteed to be written in the same replication cycle (i.e. all updates from the source DC to that object will be written before the DC performs another replication cycle). (This exception for multivalued attributes is from Server 2003 and above domains, I think).
    • Prior to Windows Server 2003, when a multivalued attribute had a change the entire attribute was replicated (i.e. the smallest change that could be replicated was an attribute). 
      • For example, if a multivalued attribute such as member (referring to the members of a group) had 300 entries and now an additional entry was added, all 301 entries were replicated rather than just the new entry. 
      • So if a group had 5000 members and you added an extra member, 5001 entries were replicated as updates to its member attribute. Since that is larger than the number of values that can be committed in a single transaction, it would fail. Hence the maximum number of members in a group in a Windows 2000 forest functional level domain was 5000. 
    • Starting from Windows Server 2003, when a multivalued attribute has a change only the changed value is replicated (i.e. the smallest change that can be replicated is a value). Thus groups in Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2003 interim functional level domains don’t have the limitation of 5000 members. 
      • This feature is known as Linked Value Replication (LVR). I mentioned this in an earlier post of mine in the context of having multiple domains vs a single domain. Not only does LVR remove limitations such as the above, it also leads to efficient replication by reducing the network traffic.
      • When a Windows 2000 forest level domain is raised to Windows 2003/ 2003 interim forest level, existing multivalued attributes are not affected in any way. (If they were, there’d be huge network traffic as these changes propagate through the domain). Only when the multivalued attribute is modified does it convert to a replicate as single values. 
  • Earlier I mentioned how all attributes are actually objects of the class attributeSchema.  The AD schema is what defines attributes and the relations between them.
    • Before replication between two DCs can happen, the replication system (DRS – see below) checks whether the schema of both DCs match. If the schemas do not match, replication is rescheduled until the schemas match (makes sense – if replication happens between DCs with different schemas, the attributes may have different meanings and relationships, and replication could mess things up). 
    • If the forest schema is changed, schema replication takes precedence over all other replication. In fact, all other replication is blocked until the schema replicates. 

Architecture

  • On each DC, replication operates within the Directory System Agent (DSA) component – ntdsa.dll
    • DSA is the interface through which clients and other DCs gain access to the AD database of that DC. 
    • DSA is also the LDAP server. Directory-aware applications (basically, LDAP-aware applications) access DSA via the LDAP protocol or LDAP C API, through the wldap32.dll component  (am not very clear about this bit). LDAPv3 is used. 
  • A sub-component of the DSA is DRS (Directory Replication System) using the DRS RPC protocol (Microsoft’s specification of this protocol can be found at this MSDN link). Client & server components of the DRS interact with each other to transfer and apply updates between DCs. 
    • Updates happen in two ways: via RPC or SMTP (the latter is only for non-domain updates, which I infer to mean Schema or Configuration partition updates) 
    • Domain joined computers have a component called ntdsapi.dll which lets them communicate with DCs over RPC.
      • This is what domain joined computers use to communicate with the DC.
      • This is also what tools such as repadmin.exe or AD Sites and Services (dssites.msc) use to communicate with the DC (even if these tools are running on the DC). 
    • DCs additionally have a private version of ntdsapi.dll which lets them replicate with other DCs over RPC. (I infer the word “private” here to mean it’s meant only for DCs).
      • As mentioned earlier, DC to DC replication can also bypass RPC and use SMTP instead. Then the ntdsapi.dll component is not used. Other components, such as ISMServ.exe and the CDO library are used in that case. Remember: this is only for non-domain updates. 
    • The RPC interface used by DRS is called drsuapi. It provides the functions (also see this link) for replication and management. Check this section of the TechNet post for an architecture diagram and description of the components. 
      • The TechNet post also mentions DRS.idl. This is a file that contains the interface and type library definitions. 
  • The DSA also has a sub-component for performing low-level operations on the AD database. 
  • The DSA also has a sub-component that provides an API for applications to access the AD database. 
    • The AD database is called ntds.dit (DIT == Directory Information Tree; see this link for more info). The database engine is Extensible Storage Engine (ESE; esent.dll)

Characteristics of AD replication

  • Multimaster
    • Changes can be made to any DCs (as long as they are authoritative for the objects).
  • Pull
    • When an update occurs on a DC it notifies its partners. The partners then requests (pulls) changes from the source DC. 
  • Store-and-forward
    • When a DC receives a change from its partners, it stores the change and in-turn forwards on to others (i.e. informs others so they can issue pull requests from itself). Thus, the DC where a change is made does not have to update every other DCs in the domain. 
    • Because of the store-and-forward mechanism replication must be thought of as sequentially moving through the domain. 
  • State-based
    • Each DC has metadata to know the “state” of its replicas. This state is compared with that of its partner to identify the changes required. (This is in contrast to log-based replication where each DC keeps a log of changes it made and sends that log to its partners so they can replay the log and update themselves). 
    • This makes uses of metadata such as Update Sequence Number (USN), Up-to-dateness vector, and High-watermark vector. Synchronized time is not primarily used or required to keep track of this (it is used, but in addition to other mechanisms). 

Updates

LDAP/ AD supports the following four types of update requests:

  • Add an object to the directory.
  • Delete an object from the directory. 
  • Modify (add, delete, remove) attribute values of an existing object in the directory. 
  • Move an object by changing the name or parent of the object. 

Each of the above update requests generates a separate write transaction (because remember, all updates to a single object happen in a single transaction). Updates are an all-or-nothing event. If multiple attributes of an object are updated, and even one of those updates fail when writing to the database, all attributes fail and are not updated. 

Once an update request is committed to the database it is called an originating update. When a DC receives an originating update, writes it to its database, and sends out updates to other DCs these are called replication updates. There is no one-to-one relation between originating updates and replication updates. For instance, a DC could receive multiple originating updates to an object – possible even from different DCs – and then send a replication update with the new state of that object. (Remember: AD is state-based, not log-based. It is the state that matters, not the steps taken to reach that state). 

Adding request:

  • Creates a new object with a unique objectGUID attribute. Values of all replicated attributes are set to Version = 1. (The Version attribute will be discussed later, below). 
  • The add request fails if the parent object does not exist or the DC does not contain a writeable replica of the parent object’s directory partition. 

Modify request:

  • If an attribute is deleted then its value is set with NULL and Version is incremented. 
  • If values are to be added/ removed from an attribute, it is done so and the attribute Version is incremented. The Modify request compares the existing and new values. If there are no changes then nothing happens – the request is ignored, the Version does not change. 

Move request:

  • This is a special case of the Modify request in that only the name attribute is changed. 

Delete request:

  • The isDeleted attribute is set to TRUE. This marks the object as tombstoned (i.e. deleted but not removed from AD). 
  • The DN of the object is set to a value that cannot be set by an LDAP application (i.e. an impossible value). 
  • Except a few important attributes, the rest are stripped from the object (“stripped”, not removed as one would do above). 
  • The object itself is moved to the Deleted Objects container. 

Certain objects are protected from deletion:

  • Cross-references (class crossRef) and RID Object for the DC. Any delete request for these objects are rejected. And any originating update deletion of these objects is rejected, and all attributes of the object are updated (Version incremented) so the object replicates to other DCs and is reanimated wherever it was deleted.  
    • Cross-references are present in the Configuration partition: CN=Partitions,CN=Configuration,DC=(domain)
    • RID Objects are present under each DC at CN=RID Set,CN=(DC),OU=Domain Controllers,DC=(domain)
  • The NTDS Settings (class nTDSDSA) object.
    • This object represents the DSA (Directory System Agent). It is present in the Configuration partition under the site and DC: CN=NTDS Settings,CN=(DC),CN=Servers,CN=(SITE),CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=(domain)
    • Remember, the DSA is the LDAP server within the DC. The DSA’s GUID is what we see when DCs replicate or in their DNS names (DSAGUID._msdcs.domain is a CNAME to the DC name).
    • The objectGUID of the DC object is not the same as the objectGUID of its DSA object. The latter is what matters. When a DC computer object is opened in ADUC, it is possible to view the corresponding DSA object by clicking on the “NTDS Settings” button in the first tab. 
    • Trivia: to find all the DCs in a forest one can query for objects of class nTDSDSA. Below query, for instance, finds all objects of that class and returns their DN and objectGUID

      nTDSDSA

    • When a DC is demoted, its DSA object is deleted but not really deleted. It is protected and disabled from receiving replication requests. Thus, a query such as the above will return DSA objects of DCs that may no longer exist in the forest.

      A better way to structure the above query then would be to also filter out objects whose isDeleted attribute is not TRUE.

      nTDSDSA-2

Conflicts

AD does not depend on timestamps to resolve conflicts. In case of conflicts the “volatility” of changes is what primarily matters. That is, if an attribute was updated twice on one DC and thrice on another DC, even if the timestamps of changes from the first DC are later than the second DC, the change from the second DC will win because the attribute was updated thrice there. More on this in my next post

Database GUID

I mentioned above that each DSA has its own objectGUID. This GUID is created with the server is promoted to a DC and deleted (sort of) when the DC is demoted. Thus the GUID is present for the lifetime of the DC and doesn’t change even if the DC name changes. 

The AD database (ntds.dit) on each DC has its own GUID. This GUID is stored in the invocationId attribute of the DSA. Unlike the DSA GUID, the database GUID can change. This happens when (1) the DC is demoted and re-promoted (so the database changes), (2) when an application NC is added/ removed to the DC, (3) when the DC/ database is restored from a backup, or (4) (only in Server 2012 and above) whenever a DC running in a VM is snapshotted or copied.

The invocationId attribute can be viewed via ldp.exe as above, or in the “NTDS Settings” of the DC computer object in AD Users & Computers, or in the “NTDS Settings” in AD Sites & Services. It can also be viewed in the output of repadmin.exe.

The invocationID is a part of replication requests (more later). When the invocationID changes other know that they have to replicate changes to this DC so it can catch up. The first DC in a domain will have its invocationID and objectGUID as same (until the invocationID changes). All other DCs will have different values for these both. 

Update Sequence Numbers (USNs)

(I was planning on covering this separately as part of my AD Troubleshooting WorkshopPLUS posts, but USNs are mentioned in this TechNet post so I might as well cover them now). 

USNs are 64-bit counters maintained on each DC. The number is different for each DC and is stored in the highestCommittedUsn attribute of the rootDSE object.

rootDSE is an imaginary object. It is the root of the directory namespace. Under it we have the various domain partitions, configuration partition, schema partition, and application partitions. rootDSE can be queried to find the various partitions known to the DC. It can be viewed through ADSI Edit or ldp.exe (the latter makes it easier to view all the attributes together).

rootDSE

As can be seen in the screenshot above, one of the attributes is highestCommittedUSN.

Each time a DC commits an update (originating update/ replication update), it updates the highestCommittedUSN attribute. Thus the USN is associated with each successful transaction to the AD database. Remember: all updates to a single object are written in a single transaction, so a USN is essentially associated with each successful update to an object – be it a single attribute, or multiple updates to the same/ multiple attributes (but all written in the same transaction). 

USNs are update incrementally for each write transaction. So, for example, when I took the above screenshot the USN for WIN-DC02 was 77102. When I am writing this paragraph (the next day) the USN is 77230. This means between yesterday and today WIN-DC02 has written 128 transactions (77230-77102) to its database.  

Every attribute of an object has a USN associated with it. This is a part of the replication metadata for that object, and can be viewed through the repadmin.exe command. For instance, using the /showobjmeta switch (note that here we specify DC first and then object):

Notice how the attribute USNs vary between the two DCs. Also notice the metadata stored – the Local USN, the originating DSA, the Originating DSA's USN, the timestamp of the update, and Version. If you are running the above command it is best to set the command prompt window width to 160, else the output doesn’t make much sense. I will talk about Local USN and Originating USN in a moment. 

Another switch is /showmeta (here we specify the object first and then the DC):

Both switches seem to produce the same output. The important items are the Local USN and Originating USN, and the Version

  • Version starts from 1 and is incremented for each update. Version will be same on all DCs – when an DC commits an update request (originating update or replication update) it will increment the Version. Since all attributes start with the same Version = 1, the current value will be the same on all DCs. 
  • Local USN is the USN value for that attribute on the DC we are looking at. It is the value of the highestCommittedUSN for the transaction that committed the update to this attribute/ set of attributes
  • Originating USN is the USN for that attribute on the DSA where the originating update was sent from.

For instance: the attribute description. WIN-DC01 has local USN 46335, WIN-DC02 has 19340, and WIN-DC03 has 8371. The latter two DCs got their update for this attribute from WIN-DC01 so they show the originating DSA as WIN-DC01 and the Originating USN as 46335.

Every object has an attribute called uSNChanged. This is the highest Local USN among all the attributes of that object. (What this means is that from the USN of an object we can see which of its attributes have the same local USN and so easily determine the attributes changed last). Unlike the attribute USNs which are metadata, uSNChanged is an object attribute and thus can be viewed via ADSI Edit or ADUC. From the command line, repadmin.exe with the /showattr switch can be used to view all attributes of an object (this switch takes the DC name first, then the object). 

Above output tells me that on WIN-DC01 the uSNChanged for this object is 46335.  From the earlier /showobjmeta output I know that only the description attribute has that local USN, so now I know this was the last attribute changed for this object. 

So, to recap: DCs have a USN counter stored in highestCommitedUSN attribute. This counter is updated for each successful write transaction to the database. Since writes happen per object, it means this USN is updated every time an object is updated in the database. Each object attribute has its own USN – this too is per DC, but is not an attribute, it is metadata. Finally, each object has a uSNChanged attribute which is simply the highest attribute USN of that object. This too is per DC as the attribute USN is per DC. The DC’s highestCommittedUSN attribute and an object’s uSNChanged attribute are related thus: 

  • When an attribute update is committed to the database the DC’s highestCommittedUSN is incremented by 1.
  • The Local USN of the attribute/ attributes is set to this new highestCommittedUSN
  • This in turns updates the object’s uSNChanged to be the new highestCommittedUSN (because that is the highest attribute Local USN now)

Thus, the highestCommittedUSN is the highest uSNChanged attribute among all the replicas held by the DC.  

Here’s an example. First I note the DC’s highestCommitedUSN (I have removed the other attributes from the output). 

Then I note an object’s uSNChanged:

Now I connect via ADUC and change the description field. Note the new USN. 

And note the DC’s USN:

It has increased, but due to the other changes happening on the DC it is about 10 higher than the uSNChanged of the object I updated. I searched the other replicas on my DC for changes but couldn’t find anything. (I used a filter like (uSNChanged>=125979) in ldp.exe and searched every replica but couldn’t find any other changes. Maybe I missed some replica – dunno!) This behavior is observed by others too. (From the previous linked forum post I came across this blog post. Good read).  

Finally, I must point out that even though I said the attribute metadata (Local USN, Originating USN, Originating DSA, Originating Time/ Date, Version) are not stored as attributes, that is not entirely correct. Each object has an attribute called replPropertyMetaData. This is an hexadecimal value that contains the metadata stored as a binary value. In fact, if we right click on an object in ldp.exe it is possible to view the replication metadata because ldp.exe will read the above attribute and output its contents in a readable form. 

ldp-metadata

Bear in mind this attribute is not replicated. It is an attribute that cannot be administratively changed, so can never be updated by end-users and doesn’t need replicating. It is only calculated and maintained by each DC. uSNChanged is a similar attribute – not replicated, only administratively changed. 

Note to self: I need to investigate further but it looks like uSNChanged cannot be viewed by ldp.exe for all objects. For instance, ldp.exe shows this attribute for one user object in my domain but not for the other! I think that’s because the attribute is generated by the AD tools when we view it. repadmin.exe and the GUI tools show it always. Similarly, the attribute level metadata attribute too cannot be viewed by ldp.exe for all objects. For some objects it gives an error that the replPropertyMetaData attribute cannot be found and so cannot show the replication metadata. This could also be why there was a gap between the uSNChanged and highestCommittedUSN above. 

High-watermark Vector (HWMV) & Up-to-dateness Vector (UTDV)

To recap once more, what we know so far is:

  • Every attribute has replication metadata that contains its Local USN, the originating DSA's USN, the originating DSA, the timestamp, and Version
  • The highest Local USN of an attribute is stored as the object’s uSNChanged attribute. 
  • The highest uSNChanged attribute among all objects on all replicas held by the DSA is stored as its highestCommittedUSN attribute in the rootDSA
  • All these USN counters are local to the DC (except for the Originating USN which is local to that the originating DSA). 

How can DCs replicate with each other using the above info? Two things are used for this: High-watermark vector and Up-to-dateness vector. 

The HWMV is a table maintained on each DC.

  • There is one table for each directory partition the DC holds replicas for (so at minimum there will be three HWMV tables – for the domain partition, the Schema partition, and the Configuration partition). 
  • The HWMV table contains the highest USN of the updates the DC has received from each of its replication partners for that replica. Note: the table contains the USN that’s local to the replication partner.
  • Thus the HWMV can be thought of as a table contain the highest uSNChanged value for each directory partition of its replication partners when they last replicated.

Got it? Now whenever a DC needs to replicate with another DC, all it needs to do is ask it for each of the changes since the last uSNChanged value the destination is aware of! Neat, right! The process looks roughly like this:

  1. The originating DC will have some changes. These changes will cause uSNChanged values of the affected objects to change. The highestCommittedUSN of the DC too changes. All these are local changes.
  2. Now the DC will inform all its replication partners that there are changes. 
  3. Each of these replication partners will send their HWMV for the partition in question.
  4. From the received HWMV table, the originating DC can work what changes need to be sent to the destination DC. 
    1. The originating DC now knows what USNs it needs to look for. From this it knows what objects, and in turn which of their attributes, were actually changed. So it sends just these changed attributes to the destination DC. 

To make the process of replication faster, all DCs have one more table. That is the Up-to-dateness Vector (UTDV).

  • Like the HWMV, this too is for every replica the DC holds. 
  • Unlike the HWMV this contains the highest USN of the updates the DC has received from every other DC in the domain/ forest for that replica. 
  • The table also contains the timestamp of last successful replication with each of those DCs for that replica.

The UTDV table has a different purpose to the HWMV. This table is sent by the destination DC to the originating DC when it requests for changes – i.e. in step 3 above.

When the originating DC gets the UTDV table for its destination DC, it can look at the table and note the destination DC’s highest received USNs for that partition from other DCs. Maybe the destination DC has asked for changes from USN number x upwards (the USN number being of the originating DC). But these changes were already received by the destination DC from another DC, under USN number y and upwards (the USN number being of that other DC). The destination DC does not know that the changes requested by USN x and upwards are already with it from another DC, but by looking at the UTDV table the originating DC can see that USNs y and above already contain the changes the destination DC is requesting, so it can filter out those updates when sending. (This feature is called “propagation dampening”). 

  • In practice, once the originating DC compiles a list of USNs that need to be sent to the destination DC – at step 4 above – it goes through its replication metadata to check each attribute and the originating DSA and originating USN associated with that attribute.
  • The originating DC then looks at the UTDV table of the destination DC, specifically at the entry for the DC that had sent it an update for the changed attribute. (This DC could be same as the originating DC). From the table it can see what USNs from this DC are already present at the destination DC. If the USN value in the table is higher than the USN value of the attribute, it means the destination DC already has the change with it. So the originating DC can filter out these and similar attributes from sending to the destination DC.  

Thus the UTDV table works along with the HWMV table to speed up replication (and also avoid loops wherein one DC updates another DC who updates the first DC and thus they keep looping). And that is how replications happen behind the scenes! 

Once a destination DC updates itself from an originating DC – i.e. the replication cycle completes – the source DC sends its UTDV table to the destination DC. The destination DC then updates its UTDV table with the info from the received UTDV table. Each entry in the received table is compared with the one it has and one of the following happens:

  • If the received table has an entry that the destination DC’s UTDV table does not have – meaning there’s another DC for this replica that it isn’t aware of, this DC has replicated successfully with the originating DC and so all the info it has is now also present with the destination DC, and so it is as good as saying this new DC has replicated with the destination DC and we are aware of it the same way the originating DC is aware – so a new entry is added to the destination DC’s UTDV table with the name of this unknown DC and the corresponding info from the received UTDV table. 
  • If the received table has an entry that the destination DC’s UTDV table already has, and its USN value is higher than what the destination DC’s table notes – meaning whatever changes this known DC had for this partition has already replicated with the originating DC and thus the destination DC – and so its entry in the UTDV can actually be updated, the UTDV table for that server is updated with the value from the received UTDV table.  

The UTDV table also records timestamps along with the USN value. This way DCs can quickly identify other DCs that are not replicating. These timestamps record the time the DC last replicated with the other DC – either directly or indirectly. 

Both HWMV and UTDV tables also include the invocationID (the database GUID) of the DCs. Thus, if a DC’s database is restored and its invocationID changes, other DCs can take this into account and replicate any changes they might have already replicated in the past.  

From the book I am reading side-by-side (excellent book, highly recommended!) I learnt that apart from the HWMV and UTDV tables and the naming context it wants to replicate, the destination DC also sends two other pieces of info to originating DC. These are: (1) the maximum number of object updates the destination DC wishes to receive during that replication cycle, and (2) the maximum number of values the destination DC wishes to receive during that replication cycle. I am not entirely clear what these two do. Once a replication cycle begins all object updates and values are sent to the destination DC, so the two pieces above seems to be about whether all the updates are sent in one replication packet or whether they are split and sent in multiple packets. The maximum number of values in a single packet is about 100, so I guess these two numbers are useful if you can only accept less than 100 values per packet – possibly due to network constraints. 

More later …

Unfortunately I have to take a break with this post here. I am about halfway down the TechNet post but I am pressed for time at the moment so rather than keep delaying this post I am going to publish it now and continue with the rest in another post (hopefully I get around to writing it!). As a note to myself, I am currently at the Active Directory Data Updates section, in the sub-section called “Multimaster Conflict Resolution Policy”.

[Aside] Multiple domain forests

Was reading about multiple domains/ child domains in a forest and came across these interesting posts. They talk pretty much the same stuff. 

Key points are:

  • In the past a domain was considered to be the security boundary. But since Windows 2000 a domain is no longer considered a security boundary, a forest is.
  • Domain Admins from child domain can gain access to control the forest. The posts don’t explain how but allude that it is possible and widely known.
  • Another reason for multiple domains was password policies. In Windows Server 2000 and 2003 password policies were per domain. But since Windows Server 2008 it is possible to define Fine-Grain Password Policies (FGPPs) that can override the default domain password policy. 
  • Multiple domains were also used when security was a concern. Maybe a remote location had poor security and IT Admins weren’t comfortable with having all the domain usernames and password replicating to DCs in such locations. Solution was the create a separate domain with just the users of that domain. But since Windows Server 2008 we have Read-Only Domain Controllers (RODCs) that do not store any password and can be set to cache passwords of only specified users.
  • Yet another reason for multiple domains was DNS replication. In Windows Server 2000 AD integrated DNS zones replicated to all DCs of the domain – that is, even DCs not holding the DNS role. To avoid such replication traffic multiple domains were created so the DNS replication was limited to only DCs of those domains. Again, starting Windows Server 2003 we have Application Partitions which can be set to replicate to specific DCs. In fact, Server 2003 introduced two Application Partitions specifically for DNS – a Forest DNS Zone partition, and a Domain DNS Zone partition (per domain). These replicate to all DCs that are also DNS servers in the forest and domain respectively, thus reducing DNS replication traffic. 
  • Something I wasn’t aware of until I read these articles was the Linked Value Replication (LVR). In Server 2000 whenever an attribute changed the entire attribute was replicated – for example, if a user is added to a group, the list of all group members is replicated – obviously too much traffic, and yet another reason for multiple domains (to contain the replication traffic). But since Server 2003 we have LVR which only replicates the change – thus, if a user is added to the group, only the addition is replicated. 

One recommendation (itself a matter of debate and recommended against in the above two posts) is to have two domains in the forest with one of them being a placeholder:

  1. A root domain, which will be the forest root domain and will contain the forest FSMO roles as well as Schema Admins and Enterprise Admins; and 
  2. A child domain, which will be the regular domain and will contain everything else (all the OUs, users, Domain Admins)

The root domain will not contain any objects except the Enterprise & Schema admins and the DCs. Check out this article for a nice picture and more details on this model. It’s worth pointing out that such a model is only recommended for medium to large domains, not small domains (because of overhead of maintaining two domains with the additional DCs).

Also check out this post on domain models in general. It is a great post and mentions the “placeholder forest root domain” model of above and how it is often used. From the comments I learnt why it’s better to create child domains rather than peer domains in case of the placeholder forest root domain model. If you create peers there’s no way to indicate a specific domain is the forest root – from the name they all appear the same – while if you create child domains you can easily identify who the forest root is. Also, with child domains you know that the parent forest root domain is important because you can’t remove that domain (without realizing its role) because the child domain namespace depends on it. Note that creating a domain as child to another does not give Domain Admins of the latter administrative rights to it (except of course if these Domain Admins are also Enterprise Admins). The domain is a child only in that its namespace is a child. The two domains have a two way trust relationship – be it peers or parent/ child – so users can logon to each domain using credentials from their domain, but they have no other rights unless explicitly granted. 

The authors of the “Active Directory (5th ed.)” book (a great book!) recommend keeping things simple and avoiding placeholder forest root domains.

Active Directory: Operations Master Roles (contd.)

Continuation to my previous post on FSMO roles.

If the Schema Master role is down it isn’t crucial that it be brought up immediately. This role is only used when making schema changes. 

If the Domain Master role is down it isn’t crucial that it be brought up immediately. This role is only used when adding/ removing domains and new partitions. 

If the Infrastructure Master role is down two things could be affected – groups containing users from other accounts, and you can’t run adprep /domainprep. The former only runs every two days, so it isn’t that crucial. Moreover, if your domain has Recycle Bin enabled, or all your DCs are GCs, the Infrastructure Master role doesn’t matter any more. The latter is only run when you add a new DC of a later Windows version than the ones you already have (see this link for what Adprep does for each version of Windows) – this doesn’t happen often, so isn’t crucial. 

If the RID Master role is down RID pools can’t be issued to DCs. But RIDs are handed out in blocks of 500 per DC, and when a DC reaches 250 of these it makes a request for new RIDs. So again, unless the domain is having a large number of security objects being created suddenly – thus exhausting the RID pool with all the DCs – this role isn’t crucial either. 

Note

When I keep saying a role isn’t crucial, what I mean is that you have a few days before seizing the role to another DC or putting yourself under pressure to bring the DC back up. All these roles are important and matter, but they don’t always need to be up and running for the domain to function properly. Also, if a DC holding a role is down and you seize the role to another DC, it’s recommended not to bring the old DC up – to avoid clashes. Better to recreate it as a new DC. 

Lastly, the PDC Emulator role. This is an important role because it is used in so many areas – for password chaining, for talking to older DC, for keeping time in the domain, for GPO manipulation, DFS (if you have enabled optimize for consistency), etc. Things won’t break, and you can transfer many of the functions to other DCs, but it’s better they all be on the PDC Emulator. Thus for all the roles the PDC Emulator is the one you should try to bring back up first. Again, it’s not crucial, and things will function well while the PDC Emulator, but it is the most important role of all. 

Active Directory: Troubleshooting

This is intended to be a “running post” with bits and pieces I find on AD troubleshooting. If I bookmark these I’ll forget them. But if I put them here I can search easily and also put some notes alongside. 

DCDiag switches and other commands

From Paul Bergson:

  • dcdiag /v /c /d /e /s:dcname > c:\dcdiag.log
    • /v tells it to be verbose
    • /d tells it to also show debug out – i.e. even more verbosity
    • /c tells it to be comprehensive – do all the non-default tests too (except DCPromo and RegisterInDNS)
    • /e tells it to test all servers in the enterprise – i.e. across site links

This prompted me to make a table with the list of DcDiag tests that are run by default and in comprehensive mode. 

Test Name By default? Comprehensive?
Advertising Y Y
CheckSDRefDom Y Y
CheckSecurityError N Y
Connectivity Y Y
CrossRefValidation Y Y
CutOffServers N Y
DcPromo N/A N/A
DNS N Y
FrsEvent Y Y
DFSREvent Y Y
SysVolCheck Y Y
LocatorCheck Y Y
Intersite Y Y
KccEvent Y Y
KnowsOfRoleHolders Y Y
MachineAccount Y Y
NCSecDesc Y Y
NetLogos Y Y
ObjectsReplicated Y Y
OutboundSecureChannels Y Y
RegisterInDNS N/A N/A
Replications Y Y
RidManager Y Y
Services Y Y
SystemLog Y Y
Topology N Y
VerifyEnterpriseReferences N Y
VerifyReferences  Y Y
VerifyReplicas N Y

Replication error 1722 The RPC server is unavailable

Came across this after I setup a new child domain. Other DCs in the forest were unable to replicate to this for about 2 hours. The error was due to DNS – the CNAME records for the new DC hadn’t replicated yet. 

This TechNet post was a good read. Gives a few commands worth keeping in mind, and shows a logical way of troubleshooting.

Replication error 8524 The DSA operation is unable to proceed because of a DNS lookup failure

Another TechNet post came across in relation to the above DNS issue. 

This command is worth remembering:

Shows all the replication partners and a summary of last replication. Seems to be similar to:

 Especially useful is the fact that both commands give the DSA GUIDs of the target DC and its partners:

It is possible to specify a DC by giving its name. Have the GUIDs is useful when you suspect DNS issues. Check that the CNAMEs can be resolved from both source and destination DCs.  

Active Directory: Operations Master Roles (contd.)

This is a continuation to my previous post on AD FSMO roles. I had to wrap that up in a hurry as I was distracted by other things. 

Identifying the FSMO role holders

Easiest would be to use netdom or dcdiag

You could also use ntdsutil (if you can remember the long commands!)

The overall idea with all these commands is the same. You connect to a specified server or any sever in a specified domain. Then you query that server for the FSMO roles it knows of. 

If PowerShell is your friend, then the Get-ADDomain and Get-ADForest cmdlets are your friends. The output of these cmdlets show you the current FSMO role holders:

Finally, if a GUI is your weapon of choice, there’s three different places you will have to look:

  1. In AD Users and Computers, right click the domain and select “Operations Masters”. This will show the RID Master, PDC, and Infrastructure Master – the three domain specific FSMOs.
  2. In AD Domains and Trusts, right click on AD Domains and Trusts and select “Operations Masters”. This will show the Domain Naming Master. 
  3. Open a command prompt or run window, type regsvr32 schmmgmt.dll, then open MMC, add a snap-in called AD Schema and open it, and then right click on AD Schema and select “Operations Masters”. This will show the Schema Master. 

Transferring FSMO role holders

With a GUI transferring role holders is easy. In each of the screens above when you view the role holder there’s also an option to change it. 

To transfer/ seize a role with ntdsutil you first connect to the DC that will now hold the role, and issue a transfer/ seize command. As the names imply transfer is a “clean” way of moving the role, while seize is a seizing of the role. You seize roles when the DC that currently has the role is down/ unreachable and you can’t wait for a graceful transfer. For example: 

When you attempt a seize, ntdsutil attempts a transfer first and if that succeeds then a transfer is done instead of a seize.  

Things are much easier with PowerShell. One cmdlet, and you are done:

A neat thing about this cmdlet is that you don’t have to necessarily specify the role name. Each role has a number associated with it so you could simply specify the number instead of the role name as a parameter. 

  • PDCEmulator is 0
  • RIDMaster is 1
  • InfrastructureMaster is 2
  • SchemaMaster is 3
  • DomainNamingMaster is 4

This is quite convenient when you want to specify multiple roles to be moved. Much easier typing -OperationMasterRole 1,2,3 than -OperationMasterRole RIDMaster,InfrastructureMaster,SchemaMaster

I prefer ntdsutil over PowerShell as it gives confirmation and so I know the transfer/ seize has succeeded. 

The fsMORoleOwner attribute

The commands above show how to view and/ or transfer FSMO roles. But where exactly is the information on various roles stored in AD? Many places actually …

There is an attribute called fsMORoleOwner. Different locations have this attribute present, and the value of this attribute at these locations indicate which DC holds a particular role. (The attribute can be viewed using ADSI Edit or PowerShell).

  • In the domain partition, the DC=domainName container has this attribute. The value there points to the DC with the PDC Emulator role. 
  • In the domain partition, the CN=Infrastructure,DC=domainName container has this attribute. The value there points to the DC with the Infrastructure Master role. 
  • In the domain partition, the CN=RID Manager$,CN=System,DC=domainName container has this attribute. The value there points to the DC with the RID Master role.
  • In the configuration partition, the CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=forestRootDomain container has this attribute. The value there points to the DC with the Schema Master role.
  • Lastly, in the configuration partition, the CN=Partitions,CN=Configuration,DC=forestRootDomain container has this attribute. The value there points to the DC with the Domain Naming Master role.

What this means is that you can change this attribute and effectively transfer the FSMO role from one DC to another. For instance: 

That said I wouldn’t generally transfer/ seize roles this way. For one, I am not sure whether ntdsutil and/ or PowerShell does anything else behind the scenes (maybe replicate the change with priority?). For another, occasionally I have got errors like “The role owner attribute could not be read” when trying to change the attribute. These errors seem to be related to corrupt DC entries in FSMO roles, so don’t push your luck. (Or maybe I wasn’t connecting to the DC currently holding that role – not sure. You have to be connected to the DC holding the role to change this attribute). 

Another thing to keep in mind is that after you transfer/ seize a role the change has to update through out the domain. Once you think of it in terms of the attributes above that makes sense. When a change is made the attribute is updated and that update as to replicate throughout the domain for other DCs to know.

Lastly, I hadn’t realized this before, but FSMO roles apply to each application partition too. They are not only for the domain partitions (as I had previously thought). To transfer/ seize FSMO roles of application partitions one must update the attribute directly as above. 

That’s all for now!

Update: When a DC holding one of the FSMO roles comes online after a reboot it will do an initial sync with its partners before advertising itself as a DC. During this initial sync it will check the fsMORoleOwner attribute to verify that it is still the FSMO role holder. If it still it, it will start advertising its services; if not, it will stop advertising that role. More here …

Active Directory: Operations Master Roles

Active Directory is a multimaster database. Which means it has no single master – any of the domain controllers (the read-write ones) can make changes to the Active Directory database. However, there are some tasks that necessarily need a single domain controller to be the one in charge. You can still make changes from any domain controller, but they will check with a select domain controller to ensure there’s no conflicts in making the change or perhaps ask this Domain Controller to actually make the change.

There are five such tasks where Active Directory behaves as a singlemaster database. For these tasks only a designated Domain Controller can update the database. Mind you, not all tasks need to be performed by the same Domain Controller. A Domain Controller that can carry out a particular task is one that holds the role to carry out that task. All five roles can be in a single Domain Controller, or they can be in separate Domain Controllers. Any Domain Controller holding a particular role is said to be the Flexible Single Master Operator (FSMO) for that task.

As you know a domain is part of a forest. A single forest can contain multiple domains. Two of these roles are held by a single Domain Controllers in the entire forest. Three of these roles are held by single Domain Controllers in the particular domain. Thus a forest with a single domain has 5 roles, while a forest with two domains has 8 roles (2 for the forest and 3×2 for each domain). The roles are automatically assigned when the forest/ domain is created. The first DC in the forest has the two forest roles assigned to it; the first DC in a domain has the three domain roles assigned to it. Administrators who have appropriate rights can then move these roles to other DCs.

Forest-wide roles

These are roles held by a Domain Controller/ Domain Controllers across all domains in the forest. These roles can be on any DCs in the forest, not necessarily the forest root domain.

Schema Master

The DC holding the Schema Master role is the only one that can update the AD schema. The schema is Active Directory’s blueprint. It is what defines the sort of objects the directory can contain and what attributes can be set for these objects. The schema is set at the forest level and shared by all domains in the forest. Administrators rarely need to update the schema except when installing programs that add new attributes to the objects. For instance, Exchange installs require a schema update as the objects now contain additional attributes such as the email address.

The schema itself is stored in Active Directory in a separate partition and replicated to all DCs. The schema partition is an instance of a dMD (Directory Management Domain) class object. All DCs in the forest thus have a copy of the schema and can read it, but only the DC holding the Schema Master role can write to it. This way there can be no conflicts if multiple DCs try and update the schema.

The current version of the schema can be found using ADSI Edit, connect to the Schema context and check the objectVersion attribute.

objectVersion

Via command-line the schema can be checked using repadmin /showattr:

Or PowerShell:

My domain is at the schema version of Windows Server 2012 R2. If I were to install Exchange the schema version will change (each version of Exchange has its own schema version). When I extend the schema or run adprep /forestprep the DC with the Schema Master role is the one that’s responsible. In fact, the adprep /forestprep command must be run on the DC with the Schema Master role.

The “Change Schema Master” right is required to transfer/ seize the Schema Master role to a different DC. By default only the Schema Admins group members have this right.

More about schema and how it works can be found in this TechNet article.

Domain Naming Master

Remember my post on DCDiag where I introduced the Partitions container (CN=Partitions,CN=Configuration,DC=forestRootDomain) in the Configuration NC? This container has objects of class crossRef that are cross-references to all domain partitions/ naming contexts in the forest. Well, the DC holding the Domain Naming Master is the only one that can make changes to this container – which means it is the only one that can add/ remove/ rename/ move domains in the forest and authorize creation/ deletion of application NCs. This way there’s one DC in the forest who is responsible for the forest-wide namespace. Conflicts are avoided as multiple DCs can not make changes here. 

The “Change Domain Master” right is required to transfer/ seize the Domain Naming Master role to a different DC. By default only the Enterprise Admins group members have this right.

Domain-wide roles

These are roles that are held by Domain Controllers in each domain.

PDC Emulator

The PDC Emulator – so named because it emulates a Primary Domain Controller (PDC) of Windows NT domains – has many functions:

  • It tries to maintain the latest password for any account by having all other DCs forward password changes to the PDC. (This can be avoided for PDCs over WAN links via a registry key).
  • If a user authenticates with a DC and fails, before informing the user so the DC will check with the PDC whether password is valid. This avoids situations where the password was changed on a different DC and the one the user is authenticating against isn’t aware of the change.
  • Account lockouts are processed on the PDC.
  • Group Policy Management tools default to the PDC to make changes. (You can choose a different DC however).
  • The PDC in each domain is the primary source of time for that domain. The PDC in the forest-root domain is the primary time source for all these other PDCs – and hence the primary time source for the forest.
  • The AdminSDHolder process I blogged about earlier runs on the PDC.
  • Since Windows Server 2012 DC cloning is supported. This requires the PDC to be online, available, and running Windows Server 2012 or higher.

The “Change PDC” right is required to transfer/ seize the PDC Emulator role to a different DC. By default the Domain Admins and Enterprise Admins group members have this right.

RID Master

Before talking about the RID Master it’s important to talk about RIDs.

Every security principal (i.e. objects to which one can assign security rights – for e.g. users, computers, security groups; but not distribution groups) in Windows has a Security IDentifier (SID). These are unique identifiers used by Windows internally when referring to objects. Both domain and standalone objects have SIDs. 

SIDs have a format like this: S-V-X-(48 bits of domain or standalone machine IDentifier)-(32 bits of Relative IDentifier (RID) value)

  • The underlined part can be thought of as a base SID. It is common for all objects in the same domain or standalone machine. 
  • The “S” is the letter “S”. It identifies what follows as a SID.
  • The “V” stands for the version of the SID specification.
  • The “X” is a number from 0-9. It defines the identifier authority value. For example, some objects (like Everyone) has the same SID everywhere. These are issued by a “World Authority” whose X number is 1. Most other objects – domain and standalone – have a value of 5 which stands for “NT Authority”. This Wikipedia page lists the values and authority.
  • The 48 bits of domain/ standalone machine ID are either assigned by the domain of which the object is a member (in which case it is generated at random when the domain was first created) or are assigned by the standalone computer of which the object is a member (in which case it is generated at random by Windows Setup when the OS was installed). All objects of the same domain/ standalone computer have this part common.Every domain in a forest has a unique ID (this domain ID is actually the machine SID of the first DC of the domain). 
    • There are some exceptions where the ID isn’t unique. For instance, if the object is a built-in user or group, the domain ID is 32 (irrespective of what domain it belongs to). That’s because these are built-in objects and so the domain/ standalone machine part doesn’t really matter. 
  • All the values mentioned above are common to all objects of the same domain/ standalone computer. What follows next – the 32 bits RID – is unique for each object. This is generated as follows:
    • For objects that are part of a standalone machine RIDs are assigned by the machine itself. Some accounts have a standard RID. For example the Administrator account always has RID 500. All user & group accounts start from RID 1000. RIDs are unique within the context of the machine and are assigned by the Local Security Authority (LSA) of the machine. 
    • For objects that are part of a domain the RIDs are assigned by the domain controller where the object was created. Some accounts have a standard RID. For example the Administrator account always has RID 500; Guest account always has RID 501; built-in Administrators group has RID 544; built-in Users group has RID 545; and so on (see this TechNet page for an exhaustive list). RIDs are unique within the context of the domain

And thus we come to the RID Master role. For domain objects the base SID is common for all objects. What varies is the RID. This needs to be unique in the domain. If every Domain Controller could assign a RID of its own there’s no guarantees of uniqueness. So what is required is some way of assigning each Domain Controller a block of RIDs it can assign to objects created on it. And in turn we need one DC that can hand out these block of RIDs and keeps track of what’s free for giving out next. The DC that performs this role is known to have the RID Master role. This DC hands out blocks of 500 RIDs to other DCs in the domain (the value 500 can be modified via registry).

This blog post by Mark Russinovich is a good intro to SIDs (as is this clarification by another blogger – must read if you read Mark’s post). This TechNet page is a good intro to SIDs and RIDs and definitely worth a read. From the latter I learnt that even though SIDs are used by Windows and Active Directory to grant/ deny permissions, Active Directory actually uses its own Globally Unique ID (GUID) to identify objects. These are globally unique (i.e. across the world), and although Active Directory can use GUIDs instead of SIDs it continues to use SIDs for backward compatibility. An object’s SID is stored in the objectSID property; an object’s GUID is stored in the objectGUID property. And, while the GUID is unique for life, the SID changes if the object is moved to a different domain (as that domain has its own domain ID and RID assignments). In case of such SID changes the past SIDs are stored in a property called sIDHistory

Some more bits and pieces on the RID Master:

  • Although there are 32 bits allocated for a RID, prior to Windows Server 2012 only 30 bits could be used. Thus the maximum RID value was 2^30 = 1073741823 (roughly a billion). 
  • The DCDiag command can be used to see RID allocation. The command is: dcdiag /test:RidManager /v – the /v switch is required to see the additional details. 
  • Starting from Windows Server 2012 it is possible to unlock the 31st bit for RID allocation. This requires modifying a hidden attribute. See this TechNet page for more info. Note, however, that Windows Server 2003 and 2008 cannot use these RIDs (Windows Server 2008 R2 can use these RIDs if a hotfix is applied). 
  • Server 2012 also warns for every 10% of the RID space usage (i.e. for every 100 million RIDs allocated). Also, it applies an artificial ceiling of 10% to the RID block – i.e. you can only allocate up to 90% of the roughly 1 billions RIDs. Once this ceiling is reached it has to be manually removed for further RIDs to be allocated (this gives administrators a chance to identify why their RID pool could be nearing exhaustion).  

The “Change RID Master” right is required to transfer/ seize the RID Master role to a different DC. By default the Domain Admins group members have this right.

Update: This is an interesting post worth reading. 

Infrastructure Master

A domain can contain references to objects in other domains. For instance, group members could be users in other trusted domains. If those objects have changes made to them (renames, deletions) in their domain, the domain which contain references to these objects wouldn’t know about these changes. So what is required is for someone to regularly check these references and update the other local DCs accordingly – that’s where the DC with the Infrastructure Master role comes in. 

When a group has members from another trusted domain, the group contains “phantom objects” in place of the actual object of the other domain. These phantom objects cannot be seen in LDAP or ADSI and they contain the Distinguished Name (DN), GUID, and SID of the referenced object in the other domain. When the remote object is added to a group the local DC where it is added creates the phantom object. Every 2 days (the period can be changed via a registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NTDS\Parameters) the DC holding the Infrastructure Master role goes through all the phantom objects in its domain and checks them against the Global Catalog (GC) (because the Global Catalog contains partial information of all objects across all domains in the forest). If there are changes or deletions it informs the other DCs of this. 

Here’s how the changes are passed on to the other DCs: 

  • The DC with the Infrastructure Master role creates an object of class Infrastructure-Update in the CN=Infrastructure,DC=DomainName container. 
    • If the original object was renamed, then the DNReferenceUpdate attribute of this object contains the new value. 
    • If the original object was deleted, then the DN is updated with a suffix (esc)DEL:GUID. (This is what happens when an object is usually deleted – even in the local domain. It is not really deleted, only “tombstoned” – wherein the object is moved to a special container, its DN is updated like above, and all its other attributes are removed. This way other DCs know the object is now deleted. Only after a certain period is this tombstoned object really removed from the database. Hopefully by this time the information has replicated to all other DCs and they know the object is to be deleted). See this blog post for a screenshot of how the DN looks.  
  • The DC now deletes the object it created. This tombstones the object as I described above (i.e. the DN of this object now has its DN suffixed with (esc)DEL:GUID and all other attributes – except the ones added above – are removed).  
  • The tombstoned object is now replicated to all other DCs in the domain. 
  • The other DCs see this deleted object of class Infrastructure-Update and update their copies of the phantom object accordingly. 

A side effect of the above process is that the Infrastructure Master role cannot be on a DC that’s a GC. If the Infrastructure Master were on a GC, it does not store phantom objects because it already knows of the remote objects (by virtue of being a GC). So there’s nothing to compare, and other DCs won’t be updated with any changes. 

That said, if all DCs in the domain are also GCs, then the placement of the Infrastructure Master role doesn’t matter (as all DCs will all have up-to-date info on remote objects). 

Also, if the Recycle Bin feature is enabled in the forest (for this all DCs must be Windows 2008 R2 and the forest functional level should be Windows Server 2008 R2 or above (as part of raising the functional level the schema is upgraded with some new attributes)) objects aren’t deleted via tombstoning as I described above. Instead, when an object is deleted it is only “logically deleted“. The object is moved to a special container and DN changed as before, but now its other attributes are not wiped, and a flag is set indicating the object that it is deleted and some additional attributes are set indicating how long the object will be kept in the logically deleted state (during which period it can be restored from the Recycle Bin without losing any of the attributes). Moreover, links to the “logically deleted” object are still maintained (because the object can be un-deleted any time). Because of these changes every DC is now responsible for updating references to objects in other domains by itself (I am not sure why!). Thus the Infrastructure Master role is no longer relevant once the Recycle Bin feature is enabled.  

The “Change Infrastructure Master” right is required to transfer/ seize the Infrastructure Master role to a different DC. By default the Domain Admins group members have this right.

The DC with the Infrastructure Master role is where you usually run the adprep /domainprep command. This command prepares the domain for any new DCs of a later version (for example installing a Windows Server 2008 DC in a Windows Server 2003 domain).

There’s some more stuff I wanted to write in this blog post. If I get a chance I’ll make another post with those …

Notes on Windows LSA, Secure Channel, NTLM, etc.

These are some notes to myself on the Windows security subsystem. 

On Windows, the Local Security Authority (LSA) is a subsystem that is responsible for security of the system. The LSA runs as a process called the LSA Subsystem Service (LSASS; you can find it as c:\Windows\System32\lsass.exe) and takes care of two tasks: (1) authentication and (2) enforcing local security policies on system.

For authentication the LSA makes uses of Security Support Providers (SSPs) that provide various authentication protocols. SSPs are Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs) that offer the authentication protocol to applications that wish to make use of it. They expose a Security Service Provider Interface (SSPI) API which applications can make use of without knowing about the underlying protocol. (Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSSAPI or GSS-API) is an IETF standard that defines an API for programs to access security services. SSPI is is a proprietary variant of GSSAPI). 

In a way this post ties in with other things I have been reading about and posted recently. Stuff like encryption ciphers and Active Directory. On domain joined machines for instance, LSA uses Active Directory, while on non-domain joined machines LSA uses Security Accounts Manager (SAM). Either case the LSA is a critical component. 

It is possible to create custom SSPs to support new protocols. Microsoft includes the following SSPs (may not be an exhaustive list).

Kerberos (Kerberos.dll)

  • Provides the Kerberos authentication protocol. This is the protocol of choice in Windows. 
  • Kerberos cannot be used with non-domain joined systems. 
  • More about Kerberos in a later post. I plan to cover it as part of Active Directory. 

NTLM — LM, NTLM, and NTLMv2 (Msv1_0.dll)

  • Provides the NTLM authentication protocol.
    • LM == LAN Manager (also called as LAN MAN). It’s an old way of authentication – from pre Windows NT days. Not recommended any more. 
    • NTLM == NT LAN Manager. Is a successor to LM. Introduced with Windows NT. Is backward compatible to LAN MAN. It too is not recommended any more. It’s worth pointing out that NTLM uses RC4 for encryption (which is insecure as I previously pointed out).
    • NTLMv2 == NT LAN Manager version 2. Is a successor to NTLM. Introduced in Windows 2000 (and in Windows NT as part of SP4). It is the current recommended alternative to LM and NTLM and is the default since Windows Vista.
  • Although Kerberos is the preferred protocol NTLM is still supported by Windows.
  • Also, NTLM must be used on standalone systems as these don’t support Kerberos. 
  • NTLM is a challenge/ response type of authentication protocol. Here’s how it works roughly:
    • The client sends its username to the server. This could be a domain user or a local user (i.e. stored in the server SAM database). Notice that the password isn’t sent. 
    • To authenticate, the server sends some random data to the client – the challenge
    • The client encrypts this data with a hash of its password – the response. Notice that the hash of the password is used as a key to encrypt the data. 
    • If the username is stored in the server SAM database, the hash of the password will be present with the username. The server simply uses this hash to encrypt its challenge, compares the result with the response from the client, and if the two match authenticates the client. 
    • If the username is not stored in the server SAM database, it sends the username, the challenge, and response to a Domain Controller. The Domain Controller will have the password hash along with the username, so it looks these up and performs similar steps as above, compares the two results, and if they match authenticates the client.  
  • Here are some interesting blog posts on NTLM security:
    • NTLM Challenge Response is 100% Broken – talks about vulnerabilities in NTLM & LM, and why it’s better to use NTLMv2.
    • The Most Misunderstood Windows Security Setting of All Time – about the HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\LmCompatibilityLevel registry key (mentioned in the above blog post too) which affects how Windows uses NTLMv2. By default Vista and above only send NTLMv2 reponses but accept LM, NTLM, and NTLMv2 challenges. This post also goes into how NTLMv2 performs the challenge/ response I mention above differently.
      • NTLMv2 uses a different hash function (HMAC-MD5 instead of MD4).
      • NTLMv2 also includes a challenge from the client to the server. 
      • It is also possible to use NTLM for authentication with NTLMv2 for session security.
    • Rehashing Pass the Hash – a blog post of Pass the Hash (PtH) which is about stealing the stored password hash (in memory) from the client and using that to authenticate as the client elsewhere (since the hash is equivalent to the password, getting hold of the hash is sufficient). This post also made me realize that LM/ NTLM/ NTLMv2 hashes are unsalted – i.e. the password is hashed and stored, there’s no extra bit added to the password before salting just to make it difficult for attackers to guess the password. (Very briefly: if my password is “Password” and its hashed as it is to “12345”, all any attacker needs to do is try a large number of passwords and compare their hash with “12345”. Whichever one matches is what my password would be! Attackers can create “hash tables” that contain words and their hashes, so they don’t even have to compute the hash to guess my password. To work around this most systems salt the hash. That is, the add some random text – which varies for each user – to the password, so instead of hashing “Password” the system would hash “xxxPassword”. Now an attacker can’t simply reuse any existing hashtables, thus improving security).
      • A good blog post that illustrates Pass the Hash.
      • A PDF presentation that talks about Pass the Hash.
      • Windows 8.1 makes it difficult to do Pass-the-Hash. As the post says, you cannot eliminate Pass-the-Hash attacks as long as the hash is not in some way tied to the hardware machine.
    • When you login to the domain, your computer caches a hash of the password so that you can login even if your Domain Controller is down/ unreachable. This cache stores an MD4 hash of the “MD4 hash of the password + plus the username”.
    • If all the above isn’t enough and you want to know even more about how NTLM works look no further than this page by Eric Glass. :)

Negotiate (secur32.dll)

  • This is a psuedo-SSP. Also called the Simple and Protected GSS-API Negotiation Mechanism (SPNEGO). 
  • It lets clients and servers negotiate a protocol to use for further authentication – NTLM or Kerberos. That’s why it is a psuedo-SSP, it doesn’t provide any authentication of its own. 
  • Kerberos is always selected unless one of the parties cannot use it. 
  • Also, if an SPN (Service Principal Name), NetBIOS name, or UPN (User Principal Name) is not given then Kerberos will not be used. Thus if you connect to a server via IP address then NTLM will be used. 

CredSSP (credssp.dll)

  • Provides the Credential Security Support Provider (CredSSP) protocol. 
  • This allows for user credentials from a client to be delegated to a server for remote authentication from there on. CredSSP was introduced in Windows Vista.
  • Some day I’ll write a blog post on CredSSP and PowerShell :) but for now I’ll point to this Scripting Guy blog post that gives an example of how CredSSP is used. If I connect remotely to some machine – meaning I have authenticated with it – and now I want to connect to some other machine from this machine (maybe I want to open a shared folder), there must be some way for my credentials to be passed to this first machine I am connected to so it can authenticate me with the second machine. That’s where CredSSP comes into play. 
  • CredSSP uses TLS/SSL and the Negotiate/SPNGO SSP to delegate credentials. 
  • More about CredSSP at this MSDN article

Digest (Wdigest.dll)

  • Provides the Digest protocol. See these TechNet articles for more on Digest authentication and how it works
  • Like NTLM, this is a challenge/ response type of authentication protocol. Mostly used with HTTP or LDAP. 
  • There is no encryption involved, only hashing. Can be used in conjunction with SSL/TLS for encryption.

SChannel (Schannel.dll)

  • Provides the SSL/ TLS authentication protocols and support for Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). 
  • Different versions of Windows have different support for TLS/SSL/ DTLS because the SChannel SSP in that version of Windows only supports certain features. For instance:
  • More about SChannel at this TechNet page
  • Used when visiting websites via HTTPS.
  • Used by domain joined machines when talking to Domain Controllers – for validation, changing machine account password, NTLM authentication pass-through, SID look-up, group policies etc.
    • Used between domain machines and Domain Controllers, as well as between Domain Controllers. In case of the latter secure channel is also used for replication. Secure channels also exist between DCs in different trusted domain. 
    • Upon boot up every domain machine will discover a DC, authenticate its machine password with the DC, and create a secure channel to the DC. The Netlogon service maintains the secure channel. 
    • Every machine account in the domain has a password. This password is used to create the secure channel with the domain. 
      • Upon boot up every domain machine will discover a DC, authenticate its machine password with the DC, and create a secure channel to the DC. 
    • This is a good post to read on how to find if secure channel is broken. It shows three methods to identify a problem – NLTest, PowerShell, WMI – and if the secure channel is broken because the machine password is different from what AD has then the NLTest /SC_RESET:<DomainName> command can reset it.
      • A note on the machine password: machine account passwords do not expire in AD (unlike user account passwords). Every 30 days (configurable via a registry key) the Netlogon service of the machine will initiate a password change. Before changing the password it will test whether a secure channel exists. Only after creating a secure channel will it change the password. This post is worth reading for more info. These password changes can be disable via a registry key/ group policy
  • More on how SSL/TLS is implemented in SChannel can be found at this TechNet page.

Get-ADRootDSE

Just a note to myself. A quick way to find the domain functional level as well as other details is the Get-ADRootDSE cmdlet. By default it connects to the DC you are on (or authenticated with if you are running it from a client) but you can specify a different server via the -Server <servername> switch.

Example default output:

Example stuff you can do with it: